[Apple Butter Nut Quick Bread] [Apple-Raisin Bread Pudding] [Banana Nut Bread]

[Beer Bread] [Blueberry Mini-Muffins] [Sweet Potato Biscuits] [The Classic Biscuit]

[Mini Blinis] [Butterhorns] [Brown Bread] [Buttermilk Bread] [Cinnamon Buns]

[Cinnamon Raisin Bread] [Cowboy Cornbread] [
Mexican Cornbread]

[English Muffin Bread] [English Scones] [Tomato Rosemary Focaccia] [French Bread]

[Garlic Bread] [Maple Cornmeal Biscuits] [Monkey Bread] [Oat Bran Bread]

[Oatmeal Raisin Bread] [Pizza Dough] [Poppy Seed Loaf] [Pumpkin Nut Quick Bread]

[Roasted Garlic Croutons] [Oatmeal-Current Scones] [Fresh Strawberry Scones]

[Sourdough Starter] [Sourdough Bread] [Sourdough French Bread] [Strawberry Bread]

[Flour Tortillas] [Wheat Germ Hamburger Buns] [Zucchini Bread]




Bread Baking Terms


Tiny dehydrated granules of yeast that are in a dormant phase until they are exposed to water. This product was developed by the Fleischmann's Yeast lab in Peekskill, New York for use by the armed forces during World War II. It is currently available from Fleischmann's in a 3-strip and a 4-ounce jar.


One of the two major by-products of yeast fermentation, the other being carbon dioxide. Most alcohol in bread dissipates during baking but there are a few molecules of residual alcohol in a loaf of bread.


In the US: a blend of soft and hard wheat flours with a medium amount of gluten, suitable for most baking purposes including conventional hand-made yeast breads. We do not recommend this flour for use in bread machines because it may yield inconsistent results.
In Canada: a hard wheat flour suitable for baking bread by hand and in the bread machine.


A seed that can be crushed or ground to flour and added to breads. Amaranth does not have significant amounts of gluten and no more than 1/2 cup per loaf should be added.


(pronounced ah-toh-leez) Yeasted recipes - A short rest called an autolyse comes right after mixing the flour, yeast, oil, and water. It cuts down on your kneading time and allow the dough to bake into a lighter bread with a more open crumb. Here's how an autolyse  works. It allows the flour time to fully absorb the water, so the dough is less sticky when you knead it; It helps the gluten to both bond and break down, resulting in a dough that's quicker to knead and easier to shape; It gives the yeast time to rehydrate fully so you don't end up with yeast bits in the dough. You'll notice in the recipe that the salt goes in after the autolyse. This is because salt causes gluten to contract and toughen, preventing the gluten from absorbing as much water and thus fully benefiting from the autolyse.


rich rum or kirsch-soaked yeast cake with currants or raisins, traditionally baked in a cylindrical mold.


Polish sweet bread, traditionally made with rum, almonds, raisins and orange peel.


A traditional, doughnut-shaped roll with a characteristic dense texture achieved by a short rise, followed by boiling and then baking the product. Bagels have become quite popular and are now made with a wide variety of savory and sweet ingredients, and used as bread for sandwiches or topped with plain or flavored cream cheeses, lox, etc.


long, thin, cylindrical loaf of French bread. The baguette has a crisp, brown crust with a chewy interior and is traditionally made from only flour, salt, water and yeast.


To cook food in an oven with dry heat.


Yeast used for raising bread, typically from the taxonomic group Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


A woven basket in which bread is allowed to rise before baking. It may be cloth lined or bare, but either way, it is dusted with flour prior to use. The rising dough conforms to its shape and is then tipped out before baking. A banneton is thought to provide good air circulation and even temperatures during the rising.


A traditional Scottish cake, sometimes made with yeast, and often baked on a griddle.


A soft yeast roll with a floury finish, popular in Scotland as a breakfast roll.


An Irish bread, sometimes made with yeast, that is buttered and served with tea. Barm Brack typically contains candied fruit peel and raisins or currants.


A traditional loaf of white bread, slightly larger than a baguette.


A sugar-coated bun originating in Bath, England, usually studded with candied fruit, currants or golden raisins. 


A white loaf of bread somewhat smaller than a baguette.


A white loaf of bread somewhat smaller than a baguette.


A yeasted bread that is not kneaded but stirred vigorously. The very thick but pourable batter produces a coarser crumb than a kneaded bread.


A kitchen tool useful for scraping dough off a kneading surface.


Jewish-American yeast roll that is dense and chewy, topped with sauted onions. It is related to the bagel.


An Italian version of homemade starter, made with flour and water and often a small amount of commercial yeast. This starter has a dough consistency and must be broken up before use.


Flour processed with a "bleaching agent." Fresh ground wheat flour does not result in consistently good products. Over time, flour ages and whitens and within several months it produces a better product. To hasten the improvement process, modern flour mills bleach and age flour chemically through the addition of tiny amounts of a bleaching agent.


Bloom refers to the way the top of bread opens up during baking along the cuts made in the top crust. The cutting creates "ears" (flaps of dough that rise up from the loaf and crisp up).


A round loaf or ball of dough.


A special flour, higher in gluten, that can be used for making yeast breads by hand; recommended for use in a bread machine.


A Fleischmann's Yeast product especially developed for use in the types of doughs most commonly made in bread machines. It is an instant yeast. Available in the U.S. and Canada in 4-ounce jars.


The portion of the loaf between the top and the sides that shreds somewhat during baking. Ideally it should be even around the loaf.


An inactive yeast product that is a by-product of beer making and is specially processed to be a nutritional supplement for humans.


A soft, light bread from France. Rich in eggs and butter, it is often baked in small or large fluted pans but can be used to enclose other foods such as sausage or cheese.


A method used in preparing breads where the dough is shaped, risen and baked at a low temperature until it is cooked all the way through. It is then cooled, wrapped and refrigerated until close to serving time. Then it is baked again at a high temperature for a short time until brown.


A seed of a small plant, ground into light or dark flour. Although both are whole buckwheat, the light flour has less fiber and a milder flavor. Kasha is roasted, hulled buckwheat kernels. Since buckwheat flour can be difficult to find, kasha can be processed in a food processor for about 3 minutes to create an acceptable substitute.


A special tube cake pan with fluted sides. Must be well greased to prevent sticking.


Along with alcohol, one of the two main by-products of yeast fermentation. It is trapped in the dough by the gluten fibers thereby raising the bread.


A traditional Jewish egg bread served for the Sabbath and Holy Days; most often it is braided.

CHEF "Starter"

A piece of dough cut from a previous batch of bread which is used to make a levain or starter for the next bread. The chef is stored as a dough and may dry up on the outside but the inside will remain soft and ready to use.


Fresh (not dried) yeast that is extruded and cut into a cake form. It must be refrigerated at all times and has a relatively short shelf life of 4-6 weeks.


This oven has a fan built into it that circulates the air and cooks the food more evenly than conventional ovens. It does not require preheating and uses conventional cookware.


A kneaded and shaped dough that is formulated especially to rise in the refrigerator over night.


A large piece of linen or canvas used to wrap dough for rising. It is seasoned by dusting it with flour. It need not be washed but can be hung out to dry and later the dough crumbs should be scraped off.


French dish of salmon, rice, hard cooked eggs, mushrooms, shallots and dill, encased in a dough (usually a brioche) and baked.


A French classic roll, crescent shaped and made from buttered layers of yeast dough much like a puff pastry.


Term referring to the interior texture, gluten network, tenderness and general feel of a bread. Desirable crumb size and texture varies depending on the product. Kneaded breads are generally fine and even, although when using sourdough starters the product may contain large bubbles. Batter breads generally contain a coarse crumb.


A British yeasted product made from a batter poured into a ring mold on a stove top and cooked until is brown on the bottom and riddled with small holes on the top.


A coarse rye flour ground from the whole rye grain. It bakes into a dark loaf and is best suited to rustic black breads and dark pumpernickels.


The point to which most doughs are allowed to rise. When a dough has doubled, it is full of air pockets and the gluten has become strong and elastic. The fermentation has generated heat and moisture and has allowed flavors to develop. To test if a dough has doubled in size, use the "finger-tip test."


Egg yolk and/or white mixed with a small amount of water or milk and brushed over a bread prior to baking. An egg wash gives color and gloss to the product.


Eggs in yeast breads provide added leavening, color, soft texture and richness.


Rich yeast cake developed in the 18th century to celebrate election day. It contains nuts, candied fruit and sherry-soaked raisins.


A chemical that has the ability to bind together two incompatible things, for example water and oil. Eggs contain the emulsifier lecithin. Fleischmann's Yeast is processed using the emulsifier sorbitan monostearate.


A yeasted roll made by cooking a soft, shaped dough usually in a circular form on a griddle.


Flour with added niacin, thiamin, riboflavin and iron to compensate for some of the nutrients lost during the milling process. Effective January 1997, the addition of folic acid will also be required.


A yeast raised, potato pastry that is deep-fried like a doughnut.


Fats add richness, tenderness, calories and flavor to breads. They can generally be substituted equally when the amount is less than 2 tablespoons per loaf of bread.


In bread baking, the process by which yeast converts sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol. The carbon dioxide is trapped in the bread by the gluten fibers thereby raising the bread.


A long, very thin loaf of French bread about 1/2 the size of a baguette.


A method used to test if a dough that has risen has "doubled in size." The tips of two fingers are pressed lightly and quickly 1/2 inch into the risen dough. If the dents stay, the dough has doubled in size.


A loaf of bread with a dome that does not hold up so the dough flattens during baking. Usually caused by too much yeast, too little flour or excess rising time.


An Italian flat bread, thick and not usually kneaded, traditionally brushed or drizzled with olive oil and sprinkled with salt. Modern bakers make a variety of additions to this traditional snack bread.


A kitchen appliance designed to chop, dice, puree and slice a wide variety of foods. Larger models can also be used to knead bread dough.


Doughs specially formulated to be frozen for later use.


Traditional French bread is a crusty loaf of white bread with a chewy exterior. The bread is usually made from flour, salt, yeast and water. It is made in many different shapes.


A taxonomic category that ranks below family and above species. The genus of our yeast is Saccharomyces. (This means sugar eater.)


A protein found in wheat and other cereal flours that forms the structure of the bread and holds the carbon dioxide produced by yeast. Gluten is developed when flour is hydrated and kneaded.


Machine designed to grind wheat and other grains to make flour.


Wheat, generally grown in northern climates, that is especially suited to bread making because of a high level of the wheat protein, gluten.


A traditional yeast-raised bun usually containing raisins, currants or chopped dried fruit, made for Good Friday. It is slashed with a cross and confectioners sugar icing is put over the cross after baking.


Instant yeast is a specially processed form of Active Dry Yeast that can be mixed into a dough dry (rather than dissolved) and reduces rising time up to 50 percent. It was developed in the 1980s.


simple bread similar to French bread but typically shorter and plumper. It is typically made from four, salt, water and yeast.


A variety of high protein wheat that has been used in bread baking, pasta and cereals. It is considered one of the original strains of wheat used in ancient times for bread making.


See buckwheat.


A Russian bread similar to a calzone, it is filled with cheese and baked until the dough is done and the cheese is melted.


The action used to manipulate bread dough that forms the gluten network in dough. To knead dough flatten into a disk shape, fold it toward you, using the heels of your hands, push dough away with a rolling motion, turn dough on quarter turn and vigorously repeat the fold, push, turn steps.


A sweet bun claimed by Poles and Czechs. It is filled with poppy seeds, nuts, mashed fruit or jam.


Fruit or cheese-filled, yeast-raised cake that originated in Germany.


A cooking chamber designed to imitate ancient cooking ovens.


A tool used to slit the tops of loaves. It is designed to cut the bread tops at an angle rather than straight into the loaf.


A substance used to make baked products lighter by helping them rise. Yeast, baking powder and baking soda are the most common leaveners used by the home baker.


A bread starter consisting of flour and water with wild yeasts. It can be made a few days in advance of baking or be made from the chef by softening and mixing it in water.


Rye flour ground from the rye endosperm. It does not include the bran or germ of the grain.


The ingredient in bread used to dissolve and re-activate dry yeast and/or mix with flour to form the gluten network.


Rye flour ground from the endosperm of the rye grain. It has part of the germ and bran removed prior to milling.


A tiny yellow seed that lends texture and flavor to breads. Millet flour is nutritious but low in gluten.


Bread that was formed into small balls and dipped into butter sometimes rolled in a spicy or flavorful topping, then baked in a tube pan.


A kitchen tool that consists of a bowl (mortar) and a bat-like tool (pestle) that is used to grind spices, herbs and other foods.


A small cake-like bread (generally, but not always, a quick bread) made with a variety of flours, fruits and nuts and baked in a muffin pan. A muffin pan has a number of cup shaped depressions to hold individual portions of batter.


An East Indian flat bread, baked in a tandoor oven and leavened with wild yeast.


Modern yeast is often packed in a nitrogen-filled bag to avoid the effect that oxygen has on the product.


The last, quick rise a bread goes through when a risen dough is first placed in a hot oven.


Bread that has been risen too much. It may not hold its dome top or shape and may develop "off" flavors.


large wooden tool used to transfer dough to and from a baking stone.


Round Middle Eastern flat bread, leavened with yeast, is split horizontally and filled with various sandwich filings.


A round savory tart made with a crisp yeast dough, which in the past was covered with tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese and a variety of other ingredients. Now, it can be covered with a variety of savory ingredients that may include sauces, meats, vegetables and cheeses.


A slab of stone used to simulate the baking qualities of brick ovens.


Coarsely ground, whole corn meal. It should be refrigerated to preserve freshness.


mixture of flour, water and yeast used as a sponge in French bread baking.


A yeasted dough that is typically rolled into a long rope and often knotted. They can be crisp or soft and chewy.


In bread production this term refers to the rising step in bread that is generally done in a climate-controlled "proof box."


To dissolve yeast in warm liquid (we recommend 1/4 cup water) with a little sugar (we recommend 1 teaspoon sugar) and set it aside for 5 - 10 minutes until it develops foam on top.


This bread, which originated in Native American communities, is made with unbleached flour, salt, water, yeast and lard or shortening (sometimes sugar or eggs) and baked in an adobe oven. A hot fire is started in the oven and allowed to burn out. The bread is baked in the hot ashes.


pullman pan is a loaf pan with a lid that slides across the top to seal the dough inside. The dimensions are usually 13x4x4 inches. The bread is generally compact since it is trapped within the pan. It makes good slicing bread for sandwiches.


A heavy dark bread made with a high proportion of rye to wheat flour and frequently with molasses to add color and flavor to the loaf.


A coarse rye flour ground from the whole rye grain. It bakes into a dark loaf and is best suited to rustic black breads and dark pumpernickels.


Any bread product leavened with a chemical leavener (baking soda and an acid, such as buttermilk, or baking powder) rather than yeast. This category includes muffins, biscuits, popovers, pancakes and the like.


An "instant" yeast produced by Fleischmann's in Canada and sold in Canada. It is ideal for dry mix methods of baking but can be used in any method.


A yeast produced by Fleischmann's Yeast and sold in Canada. It is similar to Fleischmann's Active Dry Yeast sold in the United States; however, it is somewhat more finely granulated so that it can be mixed directly with dry ingredient.


An "instant" yeast produced by Fleischmann's Yeast and sold in the United States in the convenient 3-strip packages for consumers. This yeast is well-suited to the quick, one-rise mix method of making yeast breads.


A dough that is not kneaded and is similar to a batter bread except it is risen in the refrigerator. During this time, the flour absorbs the liquid to form a batter/dough. The refrigerator dough makes a soft textured, light bread.


A short period (10-20 minutes) after kneading and before shaping when dough is allowed to relax to make shaping easier. This rest time is typically found in bread making methods that involve only one rise.


A stage in the process of making yeast breads where the dough is set in a warm, draft-free place for a period of time (usually an hour or so) while the yeast ferments some of the sugars in the dough, forming carbon dioxide. This causes the bread to grow. A rising period usually lasts until the dough doubles in size.


Flour milled from a hearty cereal grass containing less gluten than wheat flour It comes in dark, medium and light versions (see these headings)


Sodium chloride crystals, a primary ingredient of many foods, serves as a flavor enhancer and in yeast doughs and also enhances the ability of the gluten to form a fine textured dough.


A bread that was traditional before modern yeast made with a fermented mixture of cornmeal, salt, sugar, flour and water. It is smooth textured and has a tangy flavor and aroma.


A large rum-soaked yeast cake baked in a ring mold and filled with pastry cream, creme chantilly or fresh fruit.


A special ring mold used for making a savarin.


Heat liquid to just below the boiling point. Un-pasteurized milk needs to be scalded prior to baking with yeast.


To make shallow cuts in the surface of the bread that allows it to bloom during baking.


utting the top of a loaf to allow for expansion of the bread while in the oven. This allows the loaf to bloom as it goes through oven spring at the beginning of baking. It also allows the crust to have more crisp folds of dough and lends aesthetic appeal to the loaf by the design of the cuts.


A method for bread baking that uses several slow rises at room temperature. Fans of this method say it allows for the most flavor development in the bread.


general term for varieties of wheat that contain relatively small amounts of gluten.


An emulsifier used in yeast manufacturing to aid in the drying process. Sorbitan monostearate protects the yeast from excess drying and also aids in the rehydration of the yeast cells. It is considered safe and actually can aid the body in fat absorption. 


A bread with a slightly sour flavor created by using a sourdough starter as all or some of the leavener.


A sourdough starter is a mixture of flour, water and oftentimes, yeast that is allowed to sit in a warm place to allow the yeast to ferment and a sour flavor to develop. Once fermented, the starter can be used in bread recipes to provide a characteristic sour flavor. In past times, this was the primary way yeast was preserved from one baking day to the next. San Franciso is famous for its sourdough.


A group of taxonomic classification consisting of organisms that can breed together. 


An ancient wheat variety, native to Southern Europe. It can be used in equal quantities to replace wheat flour in recipes.


A thick mixture of flour, yeast and liquids that is made as the first fermenting step in some yeast bread recipes.


A single step method of mixing a dough in which all the ingredients are mixed into a single batch and mixed to develop dough.


A sub group of a species in taxonomic classification that has a common ancestor with distinctive characteristics but is not different enough from other organisms to be a separate species.


Any food that adds a sweet flavor to foods. This group includes natural sweeteners such as sugars, corn syrups, honey, molasses and the like, as well as the artificial sweeteners. Yeasts ferment natural sweeteners to raise bread. Artificial sweeteners cannot be fermented by yeast.


Teff is the smallest of grains and therefore has a high ratio of bran and germ. Teff flour has been used in Ethiopia for centuries and has recently been grown in Idaho for the American market.


The hollow sound of a perfectly baked loaf just out of the oven.


ctive dry yeast produced by Fleischmann's in Canada. This yeast should be dissolved before using for best results.


White flour without bleaching or aging agents added to hasten the aging process. This flour whitens as it ages. 


nder risen.


Bread or dough product containing no yeast or chemical leavener.


Oxygen damages yeast. Fleischmann's Yeast's 1-pound size package of instant yeast is packed as a solid block, air-free and air-tight in a heavy foil package to minimize the yeast's exposure to oxygen.


light, crisp batter bread that can be yeast or chemically leavened and made in a waffle iron.


The texture or holes in rustic types of bread. Generally bigger and more irregular webbing is considered best.


Another name for Light Rye


heat flour milled using the entire wheat berry. Unless labeled otherwise, this flour typically works like an all-purpose flour.


This is a test to determine whether or not gluten has developed. Stretch a small piece of dough until it is very thin, thin enough to hold together and light can pass through.


bread whose top does not hold firm because of overproofing, too much yeast or a soft dough.


In baking, "yeast" refers to a single-celled fungi in the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae which ferments sugars. The by-products of this fermentation are principally carbon dioxide and alcohol. The carbon dioxide raises breads. 


Any bread whose primary leavening action results from the fermentation of sugar by yeast. 




Apple Butter Nut Quick Bread


2 cups all purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 1/4 teaspoons nutmeg
1 cup oil
3 eggs
1 cup sugar
3/4 cup apple butter
1/2 cup raisins, boiled and drained
1/2 cup chopped pecans


In a large bowl sift flour, baking powder, soda and spices together. Set aside. In another bowl cream oil, eggs and sugar. Add apple butter, raisins and nuts to oil, eggs and sugar. Add dry ingredients. Mix well. Bake in greased and floured 9"x5" loaf pan at 375 for 1 1/2 hours

Makes 1 loaf.


Apple-Raisin Bread Pudding


6 eggs
1 cup milk
1/2 cup heavy cream
1 tablespoon vanilla extract
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1 (16 ounce) loaf cinnamon bread with raisins, cut into 1-inch cubes
2 Granny Smith apples - peeled, cored, and diced
1 cup brown sugar
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/4 cup melted butter
1 Granny Smith apple - peeled, cored, and diced

9x13-inch baking dish



Yields 1 9x13-inch baking dish


Beat the eggs in a mixing bowl. Whisk in the milk, cream, vanilla extract, and nutmeg until evenly blended. Fold in the bread cubes and set aside until the bread soaks up the egg mixture, about 5 minutes. Place the sliced apples into a mixing bowl and sprinkle with brown sugar, cinnamon, and melted butter; toss to evenly coat. Grease a 9x13-inch baking dish and arrange the apple slices evenly into the bottom of the prepared baking dish; spoon the bread mixture over top.

Cover the dish with aluminum foil and refrigerate overnight.

Preheat an oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C).

Sprinkle the diced apple over the bread pudding and cover again with the aluminum foil. Bake in the preheated oven until the bread is no longer soggy, about 40 minutes. Remove the foil and set the oven to Broil; broil until golden brown on top, about 5 minutes.

Remove and let stand 5 to 10 minutes before serving.


Banana Nut Bread


1/4 tsp. salt

1 tsp. baking soda
1 c. sugar
3 to 5 ripe bananas - crushed
2 eggs
1/2 c. softened butter
2 c. all-purpose flour
1/2 c. chopped walnuts
1/2 c. softened butter

This bread is a great way to use up bananas that have gone a bit past ripe. Theyre too soft for anything else, and very sweet. If youre using fresh bananas, mash them up before adding to the dry ingredients.


Pre-heat the oven to 350 while preparing.

Combine one cup of the flour, plus the sugar, baking powder, baking soda and salt.

Mix until well combined. If youre using the bread hook on your mixer, make sure to scrape down the sides, or the bottom wont get mixed very well.
Add the bananas and mix until the batter is fairly smooth
Melt the butter. Add the butter and vanilla and mix.
Add the milk and beat on high speed for two minutes.
Add the egg and the remaining flour and mix on low speed one last time.

Grease and flour a loaf pan

Do this before stirring the nuts into the batter so they dont all sink while youre working.

Add the chopped nuts and stir gently. You dont want to crush the walnuts.

Pour the batter into the loaf pan. Make sure you scrape out the bowl.

Top the loaf with a generous tablespoon of raw sugar.

Press some un-chopped nuts into the top of the loaf.

Bake at 350 for up to an hour. Start checking at 45 minutes to see if its still liquid in the center. Use a sharp knife, so if you hit a nut you go through it instead of pushing it down and creating a huge hole in the middle of the bread.

If theres batter on the knife when you pull it out its not done. Put it back in and check again in five or ten minutes. When the knife comes out clean its done.

The bread should have pulled away from the pan, but run the knife around the edges just to make sure. Turn the pan over and catch the bread in your other hand.

Place the bread on a board to cool. Dont use a wire rack, or youll get deep ridges in the bread, and it will stick to the rack.

Slice with a serrated knife, so you can go through the nuts easily.

Serve warm with butter.


Beer Bread


3 cups self-rising flour

cup sugar

12 ounces regular beer; room temperature

cup butter, melted


Preheat oven to 350. Grease a 9x5x3 inch loaf pan. Mix flour, sugar and beer thoroughly. Spoon into greased loaf pan. Bake for 45 minutes. Punch holes in top of bread with fork. Pour melted butter over top. Bake 15 minutes more.

Yield: 8-10 servings


Sweet Potato Biscuits


cup unsalted butter (1 stick)
1 sweet potato (10 oz) peeled and cubes
1 cup + 2 T. cold buttermilk
3 cups all-purpose flour (sift  once before measuring)
1 T. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
1 T. sugar
tsp. cayenne pepper


Heat oven to 475F. Cut the butter into small cubes and chill in the freezer for 15 minutes. Place sweet potato in a microwave-proof dish with 3 tablespoons water, cover and cook on high until very tender, 6-8 minutes. Mash and refrigerate to cool. Stir in the buttermilk. Stir the dry ingredients together in a large bowl. Cut in the butter until mixture resembles a coarse meal, working quickly to avoid warming the butter. Stir in the sweet potato-buttermilk mixture using a wooden spoon just until the dough begins to form. Turn out onto a lightly floured surface and knead 3 to 4 turns to combine. Pat the dough into a 7- by 10-inch rectangle and cut out biscuits using a 3-inch cutter. Place 2 inches apart on a baking pan and bake on the top shelf of the oven 15-20 minutes. Transfer to a wire rack.

Makes 10 biscuits 


The Classic Biscuit


cup unsalted butter (1 stick)
2 cups all purpose flour (sifted twice before measuring)
1 T. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
1 cup + 2 T. cold buttermilk
1 T. melted butter


Heat oven to 475F. Cut the butter into small cubes and freeze for 15 minutes. Stir the dry ingredients together in a large bowl. Cut in the butter until mixture resembles a coarse meal. Stir in the buttermilk using a fork just until the dough forms. Knead 3 to 4 turns on a lightly floured surface and pat into a 7x10-inch rectangle. Cut out biscuits using a 3-inch cutter. Place 2 inches apart on a baking sheet. Brush the tops with melted butter. Bake on the top shelf of the oven for 16-18 minutes. Transfer to a wire rack.

Makes 10 biscuits.



Mini Blinis


2 (8 oz.) packages cream cheese

2 egg yolks

cup sugar

1 loaves white bread

1 stick butter or margarine, melted

cup cinnamon-sugar


Beat first three ingredients until smooth. Remove crusts from bread and flatten with rolling pin. Spread bread with cream cheese mixture. Roll up and cut in half. Brush melted butter on roll-ups and dip in cinnamon-sugar. Place on an ungreased cookie sheet and bake at 400 for 10 minutes.

These freeze well.

Yields: 4 dozen




2 cups milk, scalded

2 packages dry yeast

1 cup shortening

1 cup sugar

2 tsp. salt

6 eggs, beaten

9 cups flour

Melted butter 

Yields: 96 rolls


Add yeast to cooling milk. Combine shortening, sugar and salt with electric mixer on low speed. Add milk and yeast to the shortening, sugar and salt mixture. Add beaten eggs. Add the flour by hand. Put soft dough on well floured board and knead lightly.  Put in greased bowl, cover and let rise about 3 hours or until double in bulk. Divide the dough into 6 equal parts. Roll each part on lightly floured surface to 8-inch circle. Brush with melted butter and cut each circle in 16 wedge shaped pieces. Roll each wedge, starting with wide end, roll to the point. Arrange on greased cookie sheets and brushing with melted butter. Cover and let rise until double in bulk or until very light. Bake at 375 for 10-12 minutes or until nicely browned.

[Butterhorns freeze well. To freeze, roll each wedge, arrange on cookie sheets and freeze. After frozen, place in plastic bags or freezer containers and store in freezer until ready to serve, To bake, place on greased cookie sheets and let rise for 3 hours or until double in bulk. Then bake at 375  for 10-12 minutes].



Blueberry Mini-Muffins


2 cups sifted, all-purpose flour
4 tsp baking powder
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 cup sugar
1/4 cup soft butter or margarine
1 medium egg, lightly beaten
1 cup milk
1 cup fresh blueberries


(Requires a little over 1/2 hour, prepare to serve)

Grease 24 cup mini muffin tin. Preheat oven 400 degrees F. In medium bowl, sift together flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar. Mix in soft butter. In separate, smaller bowl, lightly beat egg. Pour milk into egg bowl and stir. Stir wet mix into dry mix until flour mixture is just wet. Fold in blueberries.

Spoon batter into muffin cups, filling each cup 2/3 full. Bake at 400 degrees F for 25 minutes or until muffins are golden brown and feel spongy. Remove muffins from tin with spoon and let cool. Serve warm or cold with butter.

Makes 24 mini muffins


Brown Bread



1 egg

1/3 cup molasses

1 1/2 cup white flour

1/2 teaspoon baking powder

1 teaspoon baking soda

1/2 teaspoon salt

3/4 cup oatmeal

1/2 cup brown sugar

1/4 cup raisins

1/2 cup dates chopped

1 cup milk

1 teaspoon vinegar, add to milk




In a bowl beat together the egg, molasses together. Add in the dry ingredients along with the milk, then add raisins and dates. Pour into a greased 9x5 loaf pan and bake for 45-50 minutes at 350 degrees.


Makes 1 loaf


                                                          Buttermilk Bread


6 to 6-1/2 cups all-purpose flour
3 tablespoons sugar
2 envelopes RapidRise Yeast
2-1/2 teaspoons salt
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup buttermilk
1 cup water
1/3 cup butter or margarine, cut into pieces


In large bowl, combine 3 cups flour, sugar, un-dissolved yeast, salt, and baking soda. Heat buttermilk, water, and butter until very warm (120 to 130F); butter does not need to melt. (Mixture will appear curdled.) Stir into flour mixture. Stir in enough remaining flour to make soft dough. Knead on lightly floured surface until smooth and elastic, about 6 to 8 minutes. Cover; let rest on floured surface 10 minutes.

Divide dough in half. Roll each half to 12 x 7-inch rectangle. Beginning at short end of each, roll up tightly as for jelly roll. Pinch seams and ends to seal. Place, seam sides down, in 2 greased 8-1/2 x 4-1/2-inch loaf pans. Cover; let rise in warm, draft-free place until doubled in size, about 30 to 45 minutes.

Bake at 375F for 30 to 35 minutes or until done. Remove from pans; let cool on wire racks.


Cinnamon Buns


2 packages frozen dinner rolls

1 cup pecans or raisins

1 stick butter

1 large package vanilla pudding mix (not instant)

1 cup brown sugar

2 T. milk

1 T. cinnamon


Butter 9x13 pan. Cover bottom with pecans or raisins and top with rolls. Melt butter. Add pudding mix, brown sugar, milk and cinnamon. Mix together and pour over rolls. Cover and refrigerate overnight. Bake at 350 for 30-35 minutes. Let sit 10 minutes before turning out of pan. 

Yield: 10-12 serving



Cinnamon Raisin Bread


1 1/2 cups milk
1 cup warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C)
2 (.25 ounce) packages active dry yeast
3 eggs
1/2 cup white sugar
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup margarine, softened
1 cup raisins
8 cups all-purpose flour
2 tablespoons milk
3/4 cup white sugar
2 tablespoons ground cinnamon
2 tablespoons butter, melted


Yields 3 loaves

Warm the milk in a small saucepan until it bubbles, then remove from heat. Let cool until lukewarm.

Dissolve yeast in warm water, and set aside until yeast is frothy. Mix in eggs, sugar, butter or margarine, salt, and raisins. Stir in cooled milk. Add the flour gradually to make a stiff dough.

Knead dough on a lightly floured surface for a few minutes.

Place in a large, greased, mixing bowl, and turn to grease the surface of the dough. Cover with a damp cloth. Allow to rise until doubled.

Roll out on a lightly floured surface into a large rectangle 1/2 inch thick. Moisten dough with 2 tablespoons milk. Mix together 3/4 cup sugar and 2 tablespoons cinnamon, and sprinkle mixture on top of the moistened dough. Roll up tightly; the roll should be about 3 inches in diameter. Cut into thirds, and tuck under ends. Place loaves into well greased 9 x 5 inch pans. Lightly grease tops of loaves. Let rise again for 1 hour.

Bake at 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) for 45 minutes, or until loaves are lightly browned and sound hollow when knocked.

Remove loaves from pans, and brush with melted butter or margarine. Let cool before slicing


Mexican Cornbread


1 egg
⅔ cups milk
cup oil
1 can (4oz) chopped chiles, rinsed and drained
1 can (8 oz) whole kernel corn
1 cup shredded Cheddar cheese
1 cup cornmeal
1 cup all purpose flour
1 T. + 1 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt.


Heat oven to 400F. Grease 9x9-inch baking pan. Mix milk, egg and oil in medium bowl. Add chilies, corn (with liquid) and remaining ingredients. Beat 1 minute. Spread evenly in pan Bake until golden brown, 35-40 minutes



Cowboy Cornbread


cup vegetable shortening

2 cups self-rising yellow cornmeal mix

1 (8 oz) can cream-style corn

1 (8 oz) carton sour cream

1 cup shredded sharp cheddar cheese

2 eggs, beaten

1 ( 4 oz) can chopped green chilies, undrained


Preheat oven to 400. Melt shortening in a 9-inch square baking pan. Tilt pan to coat bottom evenly. Mix remaining ingredients. Add melted shortening. Mix until well blended. Pour into hot pan. Bake 30 minutes or until golden brown.

Yield: 9 servings


English Muffin Bread


1 package active dry yeast
1/2 tbsp sugar
1 tsp salt
1 cup warm milk
1/4 cup warm water
1/4 tsp baking soda
3 cups all-purpose flour


Mix all ingredients, except the cornmeal, in the order they are given to form a very sticky dough.

Grease 8.5 x 4.5 loaf pan. Sprinkle with cornmeal to prevent the loaf from sticking to the pan.

Spoon dough into prepared loaf pan. Cover and let rise in warm place for 45 minutes.

Preheat oven 400 degrees F.

Bake for 25 minutes or until the loaf sounds hollow when you tap on the bread top.

Turn out loaf and allow for cooling.

Yields 1 loaf



English Scones


2 cups flour

1 T. baking powder

tsp. salt

1 T. sugar

to 1 cup heavy cream

4 T. melted butter


Preheat oven to 450. Sift together dry ingredients. Add cream and stir quickly until dough holds together. Turn out on floured board and pat out to -inch thickness. Cut in squares and dip in melted butter. Place on buttered cookie sheet or in buttered 9x9 inch baking pan. Bake for 12-15 minutes.

Yields: 7-8 scones


Tomato Rosemary



1 (1/4-ounce) package yeast (2 1/2 teaspoons)
1 cup warm water (110F to 115F / 40C to 45C)
2 tablespoons olive oil
3 tablespoons butter, softened
1/2 cup milk
1 tablespoon fresh rosemary, minced
3 3/4 to 4 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon salt
Semolina flour or cornmeal, as needed

4 whole Roma tomatoes, sliced 1/8-inch thick
1/4 cup olive oil
1/2 teaspoon kosher salt
1 tablesponn rosemary leaves, picked from stem

2 tablespoons olive oil

In small bowl dissolve yeast in warm water. Let sit until foamy, about 5 to 10 minutes.
Place yeast and water in mixer bowl add olive oil, butter, milk and minced rosemary. Slowly start adding flour while mixing on low speed. Continue adding flour until dough comes together. Dough will be somewhat soft, do not add more flour than necessary to handle.
Knead dough for 5 to 10 minutes until soft and smooth.
Place back into mixer bowl and cover with towel. Set in warm place to rise for about 1 to 2 hours, until doubled.
Punch down dough, then divide into 12 equal pieces. Shape into flat balls and re-cover with towel. Let sit 10 to 15 minutes.
Shape dough by stretching and flattening into a 5-inch disk. Place on cookie sheet lightly sprinkled with semolina flour. Cover with towel while you shape remaining loaves.
Using your finger tips, poke many small holes into each focaccia. Re-cover with towel and let rise for an hour until doubled in size.
Poke each loaf again with your fingertips, then arrange the roma tomato slices in a circle on top. Drizzle the loaves with 1/4 cup of olive oil, sprinkle with kosher salt and rosemary leaves.
Bake at 425F (220C) for 20 to 30 minutes until golden brown. Brush loaves with olive oil, remove from sheet, and cool on racks.

Makes 1 dozen individual focaccia.


French Bread


4-1/2 to 5 cups all-purpose flour 1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk powder 2 envelopes  Rapid Rise Yeast 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 1-1/3 cups water 1/2 cup plain yogurt 3 tablespoons vegetable oil Cornmeal 1 egg white, lightly beaten with 1 tablespoon water


In large bowl, combine 1-1/2 cups flour, milk powder, un-dissolved yeast, and salt. Heat water, yogurt, and 2 tablespoons oil until very warm (120 to 130F); stir into flour mixture. Stir in enough remaining flour to make soft dough. Knead on lightly floured surface until smooth and elastic, about 8 to 10 minutes. Cover; let rest on floured surface 10 minutes.

Divide dough in half. Roll each to 15 x 10-inch oval. Beginning at long end of each, roll up tightly as for jelly roll. Pinch seams and ends to seal. Taper ends by gently rolling back and forth. Place, seam sides down, on large greased baking sheet sprinkled with cornmeal. Brush dough with remaining oil. Cover with plastic wrap, leaving room for dough to rise. Refrigerate 2 to 24 hours.

When ready to bake, remove from refrigerator. Uncover dough carefully. Let stand at room temperature 10 minutes. With sharp knife, make 4 or 5 diagonal slashes (1/4 inch deep) across top of each loaf. Brush with egg white mixture.

Bake at 400F for 25 to 35 minutes or until done. Remove from baking sheet; let cool on wire racks. 
To make round loaves: Divide dough in half. Shape each half into 5-inch ball. Place balls on large greased baking sheet sprinkled with cornmeal. Cover and refrigerate as directed. When ready to bake, remove from refrigerator. Uncover dough carefully. Let stand at room temperature 10 minutes. With sharp knife, make 4 slashes (1/4 inch deep) in crisscross fashion across top of each loaf. Brush with egg white mixture and bake as directed.

Makes 2 loaves.



Garlic Bread


1 loaf French bread

4 cloves garlic

cup butter, melted

cup grated Parmesan cheese

1 T. minced parsley

tsp. paprika

Yield: 8-10 servings


Thoroughly rub outside crust of bread with 2 slightly crushed cloves of garlic. Split load in half lengthwise and place each half, cut down on cookie sheet. Put remaining 2 cloves garlic through garlic press and combine with melted butter. Brush over cut surfaces. Mix remaining ingredients. Sprinkle over buttered surface. Cut in 2-inch bias slices. Heat on cookie sheet at 350 for 5-10 minutes or until top is lightly browned.


Maple Cornmeal Biscuits



2 1/4 cups all purpose flour
1/2 cup fine ground cornmeal
1 tablespoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons cold shortening
1/4 cup cold butter
1 cup cold whipping cream
1/3 cup maple syrup


Pour maple syrup into the cup of whipping cream. Place back into the fridge till needed. You want this to remain as cold as possible. In a stainless steel bowl combine the flour, cornmeal, baking powder, baking soda and salt. Use a wire whip and mix all the ingredients together till well mixed. Add in the cold shortening and cut with a pastry cutter or use your finger tips till the shortening becomes very small. Take the cold butter and cut into slices. I cut mine into about 12 pieces. Place the cold butter into the bowl with the dry ingredients. Using your hands cover the butter with the flour. Use the pastry cutter and chop the butter a few times. You want to still have fairly large pieces of butter left. Take this and place into the freezer for about 20 - 30 minutes. You want everything to be very cold. Remove from freezer. Take out your whipping cream and maple syrup mixture from the fridge; stir till mixed. Make a well in the center of the flour mixture and add in the whipping cream mixture. Just mix till combined; if there is a little flour left in the bowl, just discard. You want the dough just to come together. Place onto the counter and knead a few times. Sprinkle a little flour and roll out the dough to a 10 x 16 rectangle. Make a letter fold and brush any flour off with a pastry brush. Turn 90 degrees and roll out again. Fold into a letter again and repeat 2 more times. The final time roll out to about a 1/2 inch. Cut all the sides with a sharp knife, and then cut into 8 pieces. Place onto a parchment lined cookie sheet. Place into a 400 reheated oven for 20 minutes. Place onto a wire rack and brush the glaze of melted butter over each biscuit, cool or serve warm.

Glaze with 1 tablespoon melted butter


Monkey Bread


4 cans refrigerated biscuits

⅔ cup granulated sugar

1 tsp. cinnamon

1 cup pecans, chopped

2 tsp. water

1⅔ sticks butter or margarine

1 cup granulated sugar


Grease a tube or Bundt pan. Mix ⅔ cup sugar and 1 tsp. cinnamon in a plastic bag. Cut biscuits into quarters. Shake 3-4 biscuit pieces at a time in plastic bag to coat. Layer biscuit pieces in pan alternately with chopped nuts. Boil water, butter, cinnamon and sugar. Pour over biscuits. Bake at 350 for 30-35 minutes. Cool 10 minutes and turn onto plate.

Yields: 8-10 servings


Oat Bran Bread


2 eggs
1 1/3 cup buttermilk
1/2 cup molasses
1/4 cup oil
2 cups flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 1/2 teaspoons salt
1 1/2 cup quick-cooking rolled oats
1 cup all-bran cereal
1/2 cup raisins


For this recipe you will need to grease 2 small loaf pans. Preheat oven to 350 F. In a bowl lightly beat the eggs. Add in the milk, molasses and oil. In a different bowl sift the flour, soda and salt together. Add flour mixture to liquid. Mix together just till blended. Fold in raisins. Pour into loaf pans and bake for about 50 minutes. Cool.

Makes 2 loaves


Oatmeal Raisin Bread


2 packages dry yeast

cup warm water

1 cup quick oatmeal

1 cups raisins

1 cups boiling water

5 cups flour

1 tsp. salt

cup sugar

cup liquid shortening

2 eggs

Margarine, softened



Mix yeast and water, setting aside. Put oatmeal and raisins in large bowl and pour boiling water over combination. Cool. Mix salt, sugar, liquid shortening and eggs, add to cooled oatmeal mixture. Add yeast mixture. Beat in flour to make stiff dough. Knead until smooth. Place in greased bowl and covered. Let rise until double in size (about 1 hour). Roll out one half dough on floured board. Spread with margarine and sprinkle with cinnamon. Roll lengthwise and put in greased bread pan. Repeat with remaining half. Let rise again. Bake at 350 for 45 minutes.

Yields: 2 loaves


Pizza Dough


2 1/2 cups water - divided use
1 (1/4-ounce) package active dry yeast or 2 1/2 teaspoons
3/4 cup old dough*
6 cups all-purpose flour - divided use
1 teaspoon malt extract
4 teaspoons sea salt - divided use
1 1/2 tablespoons olive oil


Sprinkle yeast over 1 cup of warm water (105F to 115F / 40C to 45C); let sit until foamy, about 3 to 4 minutes. Meanwhile, in a small bowl, mix old dough* with 1 cup of cool water and 4 or 5 handfuls of flour, stirring until you have a pasty mixture. Dissolve malt extract in yeast mixture and add this to old dough mixture; stir until well combined.

Place half of the rest of the flour (about 2 1/2 cups) and half the salt in a food processor and pulse to mix. Add half of the old dough/yeast mixture. Pulse the processor to combine ingredients, then slowly add half of the remaining water (1/4 cup) through the feed tube while the processor is running.

Process the mixture for between 30 seconds and 1 minute.

The dough should be wet and sticky. In the last 10 seconds of processing, pour half of the olive oil through the feed tube. Empty the dough into a large bowl and combine remainder of the ingredients in the food processor to make a dough in the same way. Combine both batches in the bowl by mixing them together with a wooden spoon or plastic dough scraper. Let the dough rise, covered, in a warm place for 1 hour.

The dough will still be very wet, so sprinkle plenty of flour over it and remove it from bowl, turning it out onto a well-floured surface. Divide into 10 pieces about the size of tangerines (each will weigh about 4 to 5 ounces) for individual pizzas or calzone. Round the dough up into tight little balls. Cover the balls with plastic wrap and let them rise a second time for between 3 to 5 hours.

About 1 hour before assembling, preheat oven to 475F (245C); if using a pizza stone, place in oven to preheat.

When ready the dough balls will be very puffy but, because they are so moist, will be somewhat flat. Flatten each piece of dough with the palm of your hand. With your fingertips, poke dough in the middle, leaving a 1/2-inch strip around the edge untouched, and making sure you do not poke through the dough. Lift the piece up, place it on the curled-up knuckles of both hands and gently stretch, while rotating the piece. The result will be a flat disk that measures 1/8-inch thick and 6 or 7-inches in diameter.

Cover with your favorite sauce and toppings and bake in oven or on baking stone for 12 to 15 minutes, or until crust is golden and crisp and toppings are hot and bubbly.

*Old dough is basically leftover, unbaked bread dough (usually held in the refrigerator for at least 24 hours, or 6 to 8 hours at room temperature) that's used to enhance the flavor of other bread. Decrease the amount of salt you add in this recipe if the old dough contains salt.

Makes 10 individual pizzas.



Poppy Seed Loaf



3 cups flour

1 tsp. salt

1 tsp. baking powder

3 eggs

1 cups milk

1⅛ cups oil

2 cups sugar

1-2 T. poppy seeds

1 T. vanilla

1 T. almond extract

1 T. butter extract

Glaze (optional)

cup orange juice

cup powdered sugar

tsp. butter extract

tsp. vanilla

tsp. almond extract


Preheat oven to 350. Mix all ingredients 1-2 minutes. Pour into 2 large or 6 small, lightly greased loaf pans. Bake for 1 hour.

Combine glaze ingredients. Pour mixture over hot bread

Yield: 2 loaves

Bread is best if baked day before. Unglazed loaves may be frozen.


Pumpkin Nut Quick Bread


2 cups sifted flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1 cup sugar
1 cup canned pumpkin
1/2 cup milk
2 eggs
1/4 cup softened butter
1 cup chopped pecans


Sift first 6 ingredients. Combine pumpkin, sugar, milk and eggs. Add dry ingredients and butter. Mix well. Stir in nuts. Spread in a well greased 9x5x3 loaf pan. Bake at 350 degrees for 45 to 55 minutes.

Makes 1 loaf


Roasted Garlic Croutons


2 loaves of day old plain white bread ( unsliced )
1 garlic head
1 cup good olive oil
3 sprigs fresh thyme
1/2 teaspoon black peppercorns
6 tablespoons finely grated parmesan cheese


Cut the garlic head in half horizontally. Now place into a ovenproof casserole dish, (A loaf pan works best). Place the sprigs of thyme and the peppercorns on top. Now, pour the olive oil over top of the garlic and thyme. Cover with foil and place into the oven at 300F for about 45 minutes to 1 hour. Remove from the oven and strain, set the oil aside to cool. If not using right away, pour into an airtight container. The garlic olive oil will keep for about a month in a cool dark place. After the olive oil has cooled, pour into a large bowl; add the grated parmesan cheese and a little more thyme (removed from the stem). Remove the crust from the loaves of bread and slice into 1-inch cubes. Place the cubed bread into the large bowl with the oil and mix well using your hands. Once all the oil is absorbed, place the cubes onto a cookie sheet. Bake in a 400F oven for about 10 minutes or until very lightly browned. Remove from oven and serve while still hot.


Oatmeal-Currant Scones


1/4 cup orange juice or Grand Marnier
1/4 cup water
1 cup currants
2 cups rolled (old-fashioned) oats
3 cups unbleached all-purpose flour
3 tablespoons granulated sugar
2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup cold unsalted butter, cut into 16 pieces
1 1/3 cups cold milk


Preheat the oven to 375F (190C).
Heat orange juice and water in a small pan. Add currants and simmer for 1 minute. Set aside to cool.
In a food processor, grind oats with flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda and salt. Add butter and run the machine in short spurts until it has the consistency of sand. Transfer to a large bowl. Add milk and currants with their liquid. Stir until mixture comes together.
Form dough into a ball with your hands, adding additional milk if necessary. Press or roll out the ball of dough until it is 1-inch thick. Cut dough into 16 squares or triangles and bake on an ungreased baking sheet for 15 minutes or until lightly browned on the edges.

Makes 16 scones.


Fresh Strawberry Scones


1 3/4 cups unbleached flour
4 tablespoons butter, refrigerated
2 tablespoons baking powder
1/2 cup fruit juice concentrate
1/4 cup milk, plus 1 tablespoon
1 teaspoon lemon zest
2 cups sliced strawberries
4 tablespoons strawberry jam


You will need a rubber spatula or a plastic dough divider.

Stir the flour and baking powder together. Cut in the cold butter until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Mix the fruit juice concentrate and milk together, stir in the lemon zest. Make a well in the center of the flour mixture, pour in the liquid and begin to mix together using the plastic dough divider or rubber spatula. The dough should come together forming a ball, yet remain fairly sticky, hence the need for the dough divider. This will make your task much simpler.

Knead the dough a few times in the bowl until it forms a workable ball, yet retaining most of its stickiness-you may need to work in an extra tablespoon or two of flour. Put the dough down to a circle about 3/4-inch thick, wrap in plastic and refrigerate for at least one hour.

Prepare a baking sheet by sprinkling it with a generous amount of flour. Cut the dough with a serrated knife down the middle, as if you were splitting an English muffin. Place the bottom half of the scone dough on the baking sheet, lay the sliced strawberries evenly and place dollops of the jam to cover the bottom half. Lay the top of the scone dough over this and slightly crimp the edges together. You may want to carefully lift the dough at this point to check that enough flour has been sprinkled beneath it to prevent if from sticking while it bakes. If not, add a little extra.

Pre-heat the oven to 400F (205C). Cut the dough, using the dough divider or a blunt knife, into 8 equal pie-shaped wedges. Brush the top with a little milk or egg whites for a shinier appearance.
Bake for 14 minutes or until browned. Serve when cooled just enough to handle, or store covered and re-heat in the toaster oven to crisp.

Makes 8 scones.


Sourdough Starter ( l  recipe)


   1 cup nonfat milk

/4 cup plain yogurt

1 cup unbleached all-purpose flour



Pour the nonfat milk into a small saucepan using medium heat. Bring the milk up to 90 degrees or lukewarm (Do Not Boil! You just want it to be warm). Remove from heat and add the yogurt. Stir till the milk and yogurt are combined. Pour the milk into a glass bowl or jar. Cover with a cloth and place in a warm spot for about 24 hours. After 24 hours have passed fold in the flour. Do not beat. Cover once again and place in a warm area for 2 - 5 days. You will notice the starter fermenting. You will see bubbles and it will turn into a thick, spongy mass. Be sure to stir the starter once or twice a day. Do not over stir. When the starter is ready cover loosely with plastic wrap and place in the refrigerator. This should keep for about 4 weeks.



Sourdough Bread


(Recipe for bread machine)

1 1/4 cups sourdough starter
3/4 cup warm water
4 cups bread flour
1 3/4 teaspoons salt
3 tablespoons granulated sugar
1 3/4 teaspoons active dry yeast


Place ingredients in the bread machine pan in the order suggested by the manufacturer.
Select Basic bread cycle and start machine.

Makes one (2 pound) loaf


Sourdough French Bread


1 (1/4-ounce) package active dry yeast or 2 1/2 teaspoons
1/4 cup warm water
4 1/2 cups all-purpose or bread flour
2 tablespoons granulated sugar
2 teaspoons salt
1 cup warm water
1/2 cup milk
1/4 cup
sourdough starter
2 tablespoons vegetable oil


In a small bowl dissolve yeast in 1/4 cup warm water (105F to 115F / 40C to 45C); set aside.

Sift together flour, sugar and salt in a large bowl and add 1 cup warm water (105F to 115F / 40C to 45C), milk, oil and sourdough starter. Stir in yeast and mix until dough forms.

Knead lightly on floured surface and return to bowl. Cover with a clean dish towel and let rise until doubled in size, about 1 hour. Turn out onto a floured surface and divide the dough in half. Shape into oblongs and place on a greased baking sheet and let rise until doubled again, about 1 hour.

Preheat oven to 400F (205C).

Just before baking, make diagonal cuts on top of loaves with a sharp knife and brush lightly with water (for a crisp crust).

Bake for 25 minutes, or until golden and bottom sounds hollow when tapped.

Makes 2 loaves


Strawberry Bread


3 cups flour

4 eggs

1 tsp. baking soda

1 tsp. salt

2 T. cinnamon

2 cups sugar

1 cups oil

1 cup chopped pecans

2 (10 oz) packages frozen strawberries, thawed


Preheat oven to 350. Sift dry ingredients together in bowl. Make a well in dry ingredients. In a separate bowl, beat eggs adding oil, strawberries and nuts. Pour liquid into well of dry ingredients and stir until mixed. Pour into two large loaf pans or four small loaf pans that have been greased and floured. Bake 45 minutes.

Yield: 2 loaves



Flour Tortillas


4 cups all-purpose flour
2 teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons baking powder
4 tablespoons vegetable shortening
About 1 1/3 cups warm water


Mix ingredients and enough warm water to make a soft dough. On a lightly floured surface, fold dough over itself until smooth, but do not knead or overwork. Cover and set aside for 10 minutes.
Divide dough into 12 egg-sized balls and semi-flatten before rolling by hand. Keep dough and formed tortillas covered prior to cooking to prevent drying.
Preheat an ungreased cast-iron griddle or large non-stick skillet and cook tortillas over medium-high heat about one minute per side or until lightly speckled golden.

Makes 12 tortillas.


Wheat Germ Hamburger Buns


1 cup warm water

2 teaspoons sugar

2 packages yeast

1 cup milk

1/4 cup butter

2 tablespoons sugar

2 teaspoons salt

1 egg

1/2 cup toasted wheat germ

1/2 cup grated parmesan cheese

1 tablespoon dill

5 cups whole wheat flour

1 egg

1 teaspoon water




In a large bowl pour in the warm (110F) water. Add in sugar and stir. Sprinkle yeast on top. Set aside for 10 minutes. In a saucepan scald the milk. Remove and add the butter, 2 tbsp sugar and salt. Stir till butter is melted. Cool to 110F. In a bowl add the 1 egg, wheat germ, cheese, dill and half the flour. Beat with wooden spoon till smooth. Pour dough out onto a lightly floured surface and knead for 10 minutes. Slowly add flour as you go. Just enough flour to create a soft lightly sticky dough. Divide dough into 12 pieces, cover with a towel and let stand for 20 minutes. Grease a large cookie sheet. Shape each piece into a round ball and place on sheet. Flatten slightly with hand. Brush the tops with oil and cover with plastic wrap. Place into the refrigerator for 2 hours or as long as 24 hours. Heat oven to 400 degrees. Remove buns from fridge and let stand for 10 minutes. Beat 1 egg and 1 tsp of water and brush the tops of the buns. Bake for 20 to 25 minutes or till golden brown.


Makes 12 Buns


Zucchini Bread


3 eggs
1 cup vegetable oil
2 cups white sugar
2 cups grated zucchini
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
3 cups all-purpose flour
3 teaspoons ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup chopped walnuts


Preheat oven to 325 degrees F

Grease and flour two 8x4 inch loaf pans.

In a large bowl, beat eggs until light and frothy. Mix in oil and sugar. Stir in zucchini and vanilla. Combine flour, cinnamon, soda, baking powder, salt and nuts; stir into the egg mixture. Divide batter into prepared pans.
Bake for 60 to 70 minutes, or until done.

Yield 2 - 8x4 inch loaves




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