HYDROCARBONS = ENERGY & YOU

 

About Petrochemicals

Hydrogen

Products from Petroleum

Anaerobic digestion

Import/Exports Facts

Recycling

Alternatives for Energy

LNG  (liquidified  Natural Gas)

Shale Oil

Alternative Sources

Natural Gas

Solar Energy

Alternative Vehicles

Nuclear Fusion

Solar Thermal Power

Alternative Energy Funding

Nuclear Reactors (US)

Synthetic Petroleum

Biomass

Nuclear Waste Disposal

Tidal Energy

Breeder Reactors

Oil Companies

Turbine Wind farms

Carbon Neutral

Oil Consumption by Country


CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

Oil Facts


Conservation

Oil Reserves (worldwide)


Crude Bitumen

Organic Fuels


Entrepreneurs Welcome



Fuel Cells



Fuel Cost Comparison



Fuel Savings Suggestions



Geothermal



Hydroelectric







Click below for

Conservation

Wrap your Water Heater:

Water heaters more than five or six years old may not be as energy-efficient as they could be. A jacket or blanket that wraps around the appliance can pay for itself in a year, plus saving you 4-9 percent in water-heating cost. The blanket should have at least an *R-8 rating.

*The R value or R-value is a measure of thermal resistance used in the building and construction industry. The bigger the number, the better the building insulation's effectiveness

Car Tires:

Keeping your car’s tire’s property inflated can improve your gas mileage by up to 3 percent. As a matter of fact, take the precaution to find out which tire tread is best suited for increased gas mileage, the tread pattern really makes a difference.

Carbon Capturing:

This technology is unfortunately still in the demonstration stage. It is a method of capturing and sequestration C02. This is one method to lessen some of the effects of burning fossil fuels in the future. The exhaust gases pass through units that scrub the CO2 free of the components and capture it. The gaseous CO2 would then be compressed and liquefied for storage, most likely in depleted gas or oil fields or perhaps in deep saline aquifers. Another solution would be that of planting more trees which subsequently pull the CO2 out of the air, and into their tissues. 

Speed Limit: Lowering your Driving speed:

Driving 65 miles per hour instead of 75 mph can improve fuel economy by up to 15 percent.

Tune-up:

You can improve your mileage by 4 percent, and while you are at it, make certain to replace your air filter, they can become clogged, diminishing your gas mileage by as much as 10 percent.

 


 

FYI

 

Alternatives for Energy fall into two major categories: nonrenewable and renewable. Nonrenewable sources include geothermal, coal, shale oil and nuclear fission. Renewable sources include wood, biomass, hydropower, solar/wind energy and fusion.

 

The Sun is our planet’s primary energy source. Through photosynthesis, radiant energy from the Sun is stored as chemical energy. That is, green plants use the Sun’s radiant energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen gas. Thus, green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which is stored in the bonds of carbohydrate molecules. When animals ingest and digest the plants, this chemical energy is released and used by the animals to form other organic molecules. Organic molecules found in plants and animals are called bio-molecules. Solar energy and energy stored in bio-molecules are the key energy sources for life on Earth. Sunspots on the Sun can create different degrees of cooling and heating of our planet, more sunspots create heating and lack of sunspots create cooling.

                                                                                  
More to come-----

 

 

Oil should not be the first option for energy, but the second option.

 


 

Quick Tip Fact: The Energy required to deliver One Million Gallons of Clean Water from…

 

Lakes or Rivers 1,350 kilowatt-hours

Groundwater 1,700 kwh

Wastewater 2.250-3,500 kwh

Seawater 9,700-16,000 kwh

Fortunately, Gas/Steam, Coal and Oil and Nuclear used to draw their water from rivers and lakes. Today almost all energy suppliers are required to utilize cooling towers, which use 50% less water for (due to recycling) power generation.


Oil Facts: Hydrocarbons

A barrel of oil is 42 Gallons, of that, when processed, 19.5% becomes gasoline.

More than 60% of U.S. petroleum is used for transportation

Did you know that 90% of the Earth’s greenhouse gas comes from the Ocean? It is a fact!

The absurdity of stopping the use of petroleum in the next 10 years is simply unrealistic and impossible.

Note:

Very little of the oil extracted in Alaska goes to other countries, the oil goes to refineries in Washington State, California and Hawaii. It provides most of the fuel in the Northwestern States.

Oil companies on average enjoy a profit margin of 8.5 to 10%. For those complaining that the Refineries are gouging, perhaps one should note, when comparing this number to Hedge Funds (which are protected by the Feds) occasionally enjoy 90-95% profit margins, or that of Microsoft, which realizes an average profit margin of in excess of 30%. Although my pointing out this profit margin difference, it must be noted that we participate at will with the latter, but have no alternative to dealing with the oil companies.

The House has lifted the long-standing drilling moratoriums for both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, a drilling ban in waters within 125 miles of Florida's western coast would remain in force under a law passed by Congress in 2006 that opened some new areas of the east-central Gulf to drilling. The House passed legislation to open waters off the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to oil and gas drilling but only 50 or more miles out to sea and only if a state agrees to energy development off its shore. Unfortunately, this would do very little for the production of Oil in the near term, as the state of California and other coastal states control the first 50 miles, and to date, have no intention of allowing exploration within their territorial waters. It would appear that the majority of new drilling will be around 100 miles out to sea. In other words, this will leave almost 90 percent of offshore reserves, effectively off-limits. Further, it doesn't mean any federal sale of oil and gas leases in the offshore waters — much less actual drilling — would be imminent.

The Interior Department estimates there are 18 billion barrels of recoverable oil beneath the Outer Continental Shelf, about half of it off California.

Without immediate new drilling and quick extraction, our trade deficit is going to sky rocket. Our stocks are limited, but we can buy some time. A stipulation in the releasing of the Alaska (ANWAR) and other deposits in the US by Congress and the affected States is that the Oil “Must be used for consumption in the US and a certain percentage of the profits must be used for research in Alternatives”.

Oil (Petroleum) and its many uses.

Contrary to daily dialogue and hype, the informed realize that Oil is not only used as a source for Gasoline, Heating purposes and Energy production, but for a myriad of life’s’ essential and of course non-essential products used in every one of our lives, on a daily basis, click here to view a few examples.

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is the United States' emergency oil stockpile (began in 1973), and it is the largest emergency petroleum supply in the world. The reserve stores about 570 million barrels of crude oil in underground salt caverns at four sites along the Gulf of Mexico. This supply would provide for just 6-8 week.

Unfortunately, the World is dependent upon oil and the supply is slowly dwindling, at least in the form of oil that is pumped out of the ground. Most likely that pumped from below ground supply will be depleted by 2050, unless more is found. There are definitely alternative energy methods to move transportation, as this is an absolute must in the world today, as we are transportation based. It only takes the will of industry and the support of the people, to develop these alternatives.

We need to move towards more nuclear energy, as it will provide at a minimum, 25% of our energy for transportation needs, as battery charge power retention progresses.

Automobiles produce approximately 10% of the CO2 gas, and unfortunately this is growing at an alarming rate, due to China and India’s unprecedented transportation growth.

The Middle East has now become so unstable that the United States of America must immediately take steps to move away from oil dependency from this source. Mexico is now facing deletion of their oil stores. Canada is a major source of fuels for the US, as well as it major supplier of Natural Gas. The major oil producers have a vested interest in Oil, as that is the primary function of their refineries. They must make an all-out effort to also seek alternatives, the government providing specific tax incentives.

The world is not out of oil, but is in short supply of easily recoverable petroleum. Crude oil varies greatly in appearance depending on its composition. It is usually black or dark brown (although it may be yellowish or even greenish). In the reservoir it is usually found in association with natural gas, which being lighter forms a gas cap over the petroleum, and saline water which being heavier generally floats underneath it. Crude oil may also be found in semi-solid form mixed with sand as in the Athabasca oil sands in Canada, where is usually referred to as crude bitumen. In Canada, bitumen is considered a sticky, tar-like form of crude oil which is so thick and heavy that it must be heated or diluted before it will flow. Venezuela also has large amounts of oil in the Orinoco oil sands, although the hydrocarbons trapped in them are more fluid than in Canada and are usually called extra *heavy oil. These oil sands resources are called non-conventional oil to distinguish them from oil which can be extracted using traditional oil well methods. Between them, Canada and Venezuela contain an estimated 3.6 trillion barrels of bitumen and extra-heavy oil, about twice the volume of the world's reserves of conventional oil. But, this source is not in the U.S. and again we are at the mercy of foreign suppliers, as well as that of a dwindling supply.

 

*Heavy crude oil or Extra Heavy Crude oil is any type of crude oil which does not flow easily. It is referred to as "heavy" because its density or specific gravity is higher than of light crude oil. Heavy crude oil has been defined as any liquid petroleum with an API gravity less than 20°, meaning that its specific gravity is greater than 0.933. This mostly results from crude oil getting degraded by being exposed to bacteria, water or air resulting in the loss of its lighter fractions while leaving behind its heavier fractions.

 

 

OUR IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE BREAKDOWN 2007:

U.S. Crude Oil Production

5,064,000 barrels/day

U.S. Crude Oil Imports

10,031,000 barrels/day

U.S. Petroleum Product Imports

3,437,000 barrels/day

U.S. Crude Oil Production

12,036,000 barrels/day

U.S. Crude Oil Imports

58.2%

Top U.S. Crude Oil Supplier

Canada - 1,888,000 barrels/day

Top U.S. Total Petroleum Supplier

Canada - 2,455,000 barrels/day


For the record, the US represents approximately 3.2% of the world’s population, and it is said “consumes 25% of the resources”, possibly true, but consider that the United States shares a huge amount of it gains, by providing food and humanitarian aid for much of the developing countries, provides huge amounts of monies to them, as well as protects them, when possible.

For those who are against more oil drilling, perhaps they should take a look around them, as the US economy (also that of the free World economy) we know today will most likely falter, and possibly lead to grave financial conditions, due to their lack of common sense, as well as total lack of understanding of the commodity known as Oil. Things will be very different, as well as will be their 401s, etc. Politicians and Citizens who continue on this road, and their lack of common sense, the US will be forever at the mercy of the Middle East and others.

Oil Companies are supposed to show a profit, this is what the stock holders expect.  These stockholders are you, the citizens of the United States, who invest in these companies by way of 401s, stock purchases, mutual funds, on and on and expect in return, to see their stock value grow, as well as receive dividends. For now, oil companies are a necessary contribution to the US economy, albeit, some of their executives are paid ridiculous sums. And if the stockholders do not want this kind of executive pay, they must simply vote out the Directors and Executives that abuse their companies. Fortunately, the ridiculous amounts of compensation represent a very small portion of the bigger picture.  For those oil companies that do not actively invest in alternative fuels, their days a numbered, when the oil runs out, they are left with nothing.


Where is the Oil?



 

What the Oil Companies actually do

The petroleum industry is involved in the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often with oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream.

 

Upstream:

The upstream oil sector is a term commonly used to refer to the searching for and the recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. The upstream oil sector is also known as the exploration and production (E&P) sector. The upstream sector includes the searching for potential underground or underwater oil and gas fields, drilling of exploratory wells, and subsequently operating the wells that recover and bring the crude oil and/or raw natural gas to the surface.

Midstream:

The midstream industry processes, stores, markets and transports commodities such as crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids (LNGs, mainly ethane, propane and butane) and sulfur.

 

Downstream:

These are the Oil refineries, for now, they are long-term and often financially risky projects. Today, in the U.S. they face significant regulatory risk, it has become more difficult for them to justify making that kind of significant downstream infrastructure investment in projects that may—due to a changing regulatory environment—cease to be viable before they are even completed. Climate change legislation in and of itself is not necessarily the problem, but uncertainty is;

 

A few QuickTip facts:

 

Today, oil companies are reaping the rewards of record production because of investments they made in new projects years ago. Common sense dictates they would be wise to reinvest the proceeds in new and profitable projects so as to keep income and profits as high as possible. The problem, however, is that they cannot access many new projects because of artificial restriction, in the case of the U.S., the oil is there, but they are prevented from developing it.

 

Today, artificial—often government-imposed—constraints are creating a situation that can best be defined as “Political Peak Oil.” Political Peak Oil refers to the fact that the majority of untapped reserves across the world are inaccessible for political reasons, creating an artificial constraint on production and an artificial peak in prices. For example, 85 percent of the U.S. Outer Continental shelf—estimated to hold 20 billion barrels of oil—is off limits to oil and gas exploration and production

 

Due to the huge profits some of the oil’s companies have accumulated, they can choose to do essentially three things with it: make capital investments, return money to stockholders through dividends, or buy back stock. When companies are choosing more and more to do the last two at the expense of the first, it could be for a variety of reasons. A stock buyback, for example, can increase the value of the stock for current shareholders and can produce a possible defense against hostile takeover bids by reducing the number of shares outstanding. Dividends are, of course, another way of rewarding stockholders and keeping them confident in their investment. Either one is a reasonable action for a company to make, but when they are both taking place at the expense of long-term investment, the question asks itself: why are the oil companies not spending more of their newfound income on investments that will deliver a future as profitable as the present?

 


“Attention Entrepreneurs"

 

We need a method for storing electricity! One temporary option could possibly be that of keeping it in a continuous loop, maybe?

Major recycling of just about anything made from crude oil, and by this; I mean everything that can be reconstituted back into new products, this includes the mountains of tires, utilizing steam and magnetic withdrawal (metal) and reforming, the potential end products are mind numbing.

The development of techniques to create exiting products from new sources, such as Corn (excluding the ridiculous Corn Ethanol, which requires exceedingly more energy, labor, land and water than its return. The only way this product is viable, is due to government subsidies.) Husk, Corn Starch, Flax, Soybeans, Cotton, Sugar Cane (for fuel, as well as other products made with the by-product), Grease (for bio-diesel) and the oceans garden that produces innumerable sources.

Requiring less energy to crack and produce fuels.

Develop cost cutting means to turn natural gas into an ultra-clean automotive fuel to challenge the oil industry.

A more recent development is that of thermal depolymerization (TDP), a process for the reduction of complex organic materials into light crude oil. Using pressure and heat, long chain polymers of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon decompose into short-chain hydrocarbons. This mimics the natural geological processes thought to be involved in the production of fossil fuels. In theory, thermal depolymerization can convert any organic waste into petroleum substitutes.

The Shale deposits in the United States are extreme, providing an additional 30 percent of the US needs for petroleum-based products and energy, excluding fuel for transportation.

The United States has a supply of Coal, matched nowhere else on the planet in volume, enough for perhaps 30 percent of the US energy needs for over 500 years, excluding fuel for transportation.

Most likely there is a method to create “new” oil, “we just have to go to the moon” Our achieving this would again put the United States of American back in the groove, as to our ability to create, as our inventors did at the turn of the 20th Century.

An all-out effort to utilize the vast amount of energy stores in the oceans surrounding the United States.

The going-to-the-moon mind set to development methods of energy transmission that provides for a lesser amount of energy loss in transmission lines (there is an incredible amount of energy lost during transmission from producer to end user), as well as that of methods of storage of transmission energy during slack periods and release when demand is up.

Within Ten (10) years, another source of petroleum product necessity will come from newly drilled oil wells in the United States; this oil would be used for our strategic defense as well as for products, again not as fuel for ground transportation. (a minimum of 1-2%  of all drilled oil wells in the United States must be set aside and used exclusively for national defense, with the provision, that it cannot be used in any case for fuel for ground transportation for the populace, other than our strategic defense (Ground, Air and Water) of America.

The use of human and animal waste as a source of energy.

Reconstituting Carbon dioxide back into a source of energy (this is really a stretch).

Additional research and development for the extraction of Methane from old landfills.

An all-out effort to tap the Thermal energy below many portions of the US, of course, the hitch is that of pipelines that do not disintegrate.

The Government needs to immediately eliminate the excessive red tape, which restricts the timely advancement for development of all alternative development.

The development of more efficient scrubbers, for use in the burning of coal is Mandatory, as unfortunately the use of coal in the U.S. emits 33% of all U.S. CO2 emissions.

The United States has enough potential oil (from coal and shale) to provide for those products derived for other energy for likely the next two fifty hundred years, but not enough for transportation uses.

The United States needs a call-to-arms for innovation.

The one who defies gravity, Wins.


Fuel Saving Suggestions:

Small things, such as: avoiding left turn lanes, utilizing mass trans or carpooling, when it works for you, in lieu of traveling solo. Obviously living in rural areas and working rural will not work for you, but those who live in urban locations, can certainly take advantage of the provided transportation, light rail, buses, carpooling, etc.

Why wait for the States or Federal Government to mandate lower highway speed limits? Be responsible for yourself, and enjoy the savings. Consider that you’re driving 10 miles below the posted highway/freeway speed limit, will in all likely save you a half (.005%) a percentage in gas savings. Should one think this a waste, consider that instead of your getting 18 mpg, you will now be enjoying nine tenths more miles per gallon (18.9 mpg) and enjoy an annual savings of $0.28 per gallon, the average person will save in excess of Three Hundred Seventeen ($317.00) Dollars per year, look at your family budget, and simply compare what this would pay for. The savings is appreciable.

Did you know that a typical loaded train is equal to 280 Semi-trucks?  Industry utilizing this mode of transportation enjoys tremendous cost savings when compared with over-the-road long haul trucking


 

Fuel Cost Comparison
Home & Business

 

 


Carbon Neutral

(Carbon Offset)

This is a financial instrument representing a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Although there are six primary categories of greenhouse gases, carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e). One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases.


Oil Consumption by Country

TOP 20 OIL CONSUMERS
(Barrels-per-Day)

United States Energy Information Administration 2019

United States of America


18,900,000

 

China


10,480,000

 

Japan


4,557,000

 

Russia


3,493,000

 

Germany


2,618,000

 

India


3,660,000

 

Canada


2,374,000

 

South Korea


2,328,000

 

Brazil


3,003,000

 

Mexico


2,090,000

 

Saudi Arabia


2,961,000

 

France


1,713,000

 

United Kingdom


1,502,000

 

Italy


1,260,000

 

Iran


1,885,000

 

Spain


1,208,000

 

Indonesia


1,718,000

 

Taiwan


975,000

 

Thailand


1,171,000

 

Australia


1,080,000

 

 


Source of Funding for Alternatives
:

This would be funded by a 1% across the board CONSUMPTION TAX.  The Federal Government cannot under any circumstances place these funds in the “General Fund” NEVER!

There should be a “US” deposit tax applied to purchases of products made from petroleum, excluding of course energy fuel for your car and home, which are already taxed to the max, as well as that of energy for industry. The deposit tax will be used as grant monies to develop alternatives. There should be a major environmental program that focuses on recycling of plastic product, utilizing that money for grants for alternative materials for their replacement.

The commission established and charged with oversight and making of grants must be made up of non-partisan retired executives working for nothing, each serving a maximum 2-year term, the President of the commission shall serve a maximum of 1 year. The Judicial branch and Congress as well as that of Executive branch shall have no involvement in its decision making, other than to evaluate progress and aid in initial funding. All members will be Citizens of the United States, Over18 years of age, retired and all receive no compensation, except that of the basic for travel and housing. Further no committee member shall hold interest in any venture funded, and no elected person in or out of office shall be appointed to the commission.


Recycling

“The key to recycling is the “deposit, years ago, just about everyone returned their coke, Pepsi and 7up bottles for the refund. We need an all-out effort in educating the public to actively participate in recycling. As well as forcing manufacturing of plastics that are easily recycled, as unfortunately, some plastics are difficult to recycle.

Another research project would be to seek ways to reclaim that fuel from the atmosphere and ground that could be recycled, this is a real scientific stretch, but there is a whole lot of something out there, that can possibly again be used as alternatives and replacements.

The United States is now spending in excess of “One Half Trillion” dollars “annually” for our petroleum needs, this petroleum coming from “outside the US”. This energy purchase provides for the manufacturer of products, our transportation and heating and energy fuels, food, pharmaceuticals, toys, cars and on and on. Unfortunately, this out of country purchases continues to increase our Trade deficit, consequently lowering the value of the dollar. We are now faced with a huge debt to China, as they are our primary buyer of our bonds, as we purchase their products, but they in return, purchase very little of our product.  Russia is beginning to once again become a power, due to its huge reserves of oil, which it will (IS) use as a tool to control Europe, their primary customer.

We have Iran selling oil to China, which unfortunately provides Iran with huge amounts of monies to be spent on arms and its’ quest for more power, growth and control in the Middle East.

For those who want Government controls on the Oil companies, beware, the government, is the very caretaker who cannot provide oversight of the Banking or the Mortgage industry, i.e., Fanny May, Freddie Mac and a few others, not to mention the Social Security Trust Fund (of which is empty, except for an I.O.U in the box, there are not funds in the trust. It is been placed in the General Fund and spent long ago).


Alternative Vehicles

Good & Bad

The good news is that they use less petroleum

The Bad news is that producing their fuel requires a lot of water

Gallons of Water depleted to Travel 100 Miles.

Gasoline = 7-14 gallons of water (and of course, the depletion of gasoline from petroleum fields)

(Water is used to refine oil for gasoline)

Plug-in hybrid electric = approximately 22-25 gallons.

(Power from electrical grid)

Hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle= 43 gallons

(Hydrogen for fuel cells made by electrolysis of water & electricity from Standard grid)

Ethanol (biofuel) Propelled vehicle=150 +++

(Ethanol made from irrigated corn) also has a direct effect on the cost of food products produced from corn- while reducing carbon monoxide emissions, compared to petroleum's output, it adds aldehydes and alcohol to the atmosphere. Ethanol has less energy per volume than gasoline. And considerable energy is used to plow, plant and cultivate the necessary corn crops. One needs gasoline, or some equivalent, to produce the crop to obtain the ethanol”.

CNG” Compressed Natural Gas

 

Most passenger vehicles and buses can be converted to dual-fuel vehicles that run on either natural gas or gasoline. Natural gas, mainly methane (CH4), is produced either from gas wells or during the processing of petroleum. Compressed and stored in high-pressure tanks, this product is commonly known as CNG (compressed natural gas). A refillable CNG tank, capable of powering an automobile up to 300 miles, can be comfortably installed in a car’s trunk. Many CNG-powered vehicles are operating worldwide, particularly in government and mass transit fleets. Among the advantages of CNG are wide availability and an 80%decrease (compared to gasoline) in carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogenoxide (NOx) emissions. However, refueling systems require a compressor, which increases the cost to $2000 to $4000 per vehicle.

 


ALTERNATIVE ENERGY METHODS:

Average Dollar (US) cost per BTU (British thermal unit)

Electricity

24.30

Propane

9.53

Kerosene

9.11

#2 Heating Oil

7.79

Natural Gas

6.56

 

Quick tip fact: The two greatest users of freshwater are agriculture and power plants.

 

Anaerobic digestion

This represents a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It is widely used to treat wastewater sledges and organic wastes because it provides volume and mass reduction of the input material. As part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production helping replace fossil fuels. Also, the nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used as fertilizer.

 

Biomass

Biomass, such as corn, soybeans and sugar cane can be converted to alcohol or ethanol which subsequently can be used as fuel. The problem is that the process of converting the raw materials to the finished product is sometime "energy negative." It takes 71 percent more energy to convert corn to ethanol than can be obtained from the end product E85, which is a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline, gets approximately 25 percent fewer miles per tank than straight gasoline.

 

Turbine Wind Farms

At present focusing on the development of Wind Farms, we find that Wind is a clean, inexhaustible, indigenous energy resource that can generate enough electricity to power millions of homes and businesses. Wind energy is one of the fastest-growing forms of electricity generation in the world. The United States can currently generate more than 10,000 megawatts (MW) of electricity from the wind, which is enough to power 2.5 million average American homes. Industry experts predict that, with proper development, wind energy could provide 20% of this nation's energy needs in twenty years. To reach this goal, progress much include reducing the cost of wind technologies, building new transmission infrastructure, and enhancing domestic manufacturing capability. Saying that, we are still faced with the problem of periods of little or no wind, where we again are faced with the prospect of utilizing fuel sources to make up the loss, also with wind power, whereas alludes to another problem, we lack the ability to store the energy, at least for now.


 

Nuclear Reactors  

(URANIUM) ENERGY FROM ATOMS

(There are two types in the US)

The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

 

Pressurized Water Reactors are known as “PWRs.” They keep water under pressure so that it heats but does not boil. Water from the reactor and the water that is turned into steam are in separate pipes and never mix.


And the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

Boiling Water Reactors are known as “BWRs.” In BWRs, the water heated by fission actually boils and turns into steam to turn the generator. In both types of plants, the steam is turned back into water and can be used again in the process.

Radioactivity must be carefully managed because it can be dangerous if not handled properly. It can damage human cells or cause cancer over time. Since the fission process creates radioactivity, all nuclear power plants have many safety systems that protect workers, the public and the environment. For example, systems allow the fission process to be stopped and the reactor to be shut down quickly. Other systems cool the reactor and carry heat away from it. Barriers keep the radioactivity from escaping into the environment.

In reactors, radiation is contained inside small ceramic pellets about the size of an adult’s finger. They are placed in long metal rods inside a reactor vessel, which is enclosed in a concrete and steel containment building. These buildings have walls three to six feet thick!

Nuclear energy plants produce electricity by the fissioning of uranium, not the burning of fuels. As a result, nuclear plants don't pollute the air with sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and dust or greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide.

America's nuclear energy plants reduce electric utility emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 percent, or 128 trillion tons a year. Without our nuclear plants, electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide would be 5 million tons a year higher. Emissions of nitrogen oxides would be 2 million tons a year higher.

The environmental benefits of nuclear energy can be seen clearly in France. In the 1980s, because of concerns over imported oil, France more than tripled its nuclear energy production. During that same period, total pollution from the French electric power system dropped by 80-90 percent.

More than 400 nuclear plants are operating in 25 countries around the world. They supply almost 17 percent of the world's electricity. In many countries, nuclear energy plays an even larger role than in the United States.

Many of these nations are building new nuclear energy plants, to meet the needs of their growing populations and expanding economies. About 83 new nuclear energy plants are being built around the world. Of course, none in the US at this writing, although a few are in the permitting process, which normally will take 5-10 years before construction and the never end of lawsuits.

With a growing population and a growing economy...with increasing reliance on computers and other electric technologies...with dependence on foreign oil already at a dangerously high level...with serious uncertainties about the long-range supply and price of oil and natural gas...and with major questions about the long-term environmental effects of burning fossil fuels...America will need more and more electricity from nuclear energy.

America's nuclear energy plants deliver many benefits:


They cut America's demand for foreign oil by nearly 300 million barrels a year reducing our dependence on foreign oil suppliers and cutting our trade deficit.


They produce much of the electricity that fuels our economic growth. They power new industrial technologies that boost our Gross National Product and improve our global competitiveness.


They replace the burning of vast amounts of fossil fuels - reducing the environmental impact of producing electric power.

 

The outlook for nuclear energy as bright as its past accomplishments. Government and industry are developing advanced-design nuclear energy plants that promise even lower cost, even better performance and even higher safety. They will help supply our electricity and protect our environment for years to come.

Breeder Reactors

They produce more energy than they use, unfortunately, at this time, there is little action with regard to this source.

 

Nuclear Fusion

Theoretically, nuclear fusion is an infinite source of energy and renewable. The problem is that it is essentially the same energy that powers the sun, and developing such an energy source requires working with extreme temperatures. Even if the technical problems can be overcome, electricity is still the end product.

 


Disposal of Nuclear Waste

<>Perhaps the answer would be to place the spent Uranium pellets in cask and place them in Subduction Zones deep in the oceans around the globe. They would be pushed beneath continents and their radioactive danger sequestered for millions of years, well beyond their half-lives. This would also negate any long term management or monitoring of the waste, since it would be driven miles down into the earth, well beneath any water tables or other hazards to society.
Categories in the United States

Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently in the process of redefining waste categories, the following definitions provide a general overview of how radioactive wastes are classified:

  • Spent fuel: Irradiated fuel discharged from a nuclear reactor. Contains fission products, unused uranium and plutonium, and various transuranic (TRU) elements.
  • High-level waste (hlw): Highly radioactive material (in the form of liquid and sludge) resulting from chemical processing of spent fuel to recover usable uranium and plutonium. Contains fission products, races of uranium and plutonium, and other TRU elements.
  • Transuranic waste: Materials contaminated with enough TRU elements to require the same sort of long-term isolation as hlw.
  • Mill tailings: Slightly radioactive materials left over from extraction of uranium from ore.
  • Low-level waste (llw): All radioactive wastes not classified as hlw, TRU waste, mill tailings or any other classification of radioactive byproduct material. Most llws are relatively short-lived, but some may present a significant radiation hazard.

\

 

Geothermal Energy

The word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermal (heat). So, geothermal energy is heat from within the earth. We can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or generates electricity. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall and the heat is continuously produced inside the earth.

This is mainly a concern with Enhanced Geothermal Systems, where water is injected into hot dry rock where no water was before. Dry steam and flash steam power plants also emit low levels of carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, and sulfur, although at roughly 5% of the levels emitted by fossil fuel power plants. However, geothermal plants can be built with emissions-controlling systems that can inject these substances back into the earth, thereby reducing carbon emissions to less than 0.1% of those from fossil fuel power plants. Hot water from geothermal sources will contain trace amounts of dangerous elements such as mercury, arsenic, antimony, etc. which if disposed of into rivers can render their water unsafe to drink.

Geothermal power plants use hydrothermal resources which have two common ingredients: water (hydro) and heat (thermal). Geothermal plants require high temperature (300 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit) hydrothermal resources that may come from either dry steam wells or hot water wells. We can use these resources by drilling wells into the earth and piping the steam or hot water to the surface. Geothermal wells are one to two miles deep.

The United States generates more geothermal electricity than any other country but the amount of electricity it produces is less than one-half of a percent of electricity produced in United States. Only four states have geothermal power plants:

There are three basic types of geothermal power plants:

The environmental impact of geothermal energy depends on how it is being used.


Hydroelectric

Hydroelectric energy is a renewable energy source dependent upon the hydrologic cycle of water, which involves evaporation, precipitation and the flow of water due to gravity.

 

Hydroelectric energy is a continuously renewable electrical energy source.

 

Hydroelectric energy is non-polluting - no heat or noxious gases are released.

 

Hydroelectric energy has no fuel cost and with low operating and maintenance costs, it is essentially inflation proof.

 

Hydroelectric energy technology is a proven technology that offers reliable and flexible operation.

 

Hydroelectric stations have a long life and many existing stations have been in operation for more than half a century and are still operating efficiently.

 

Hydropower station efficiencies of over 90% are achieved making it the most efficient of energy conversion technologies.

 

Hydropower offers a means of responding within seconds to changes in load demand.


Shale Oil

Shale Oil – Contrary to popular belief, oil shale cannot be used to create oil. Instead, kerogen — a hydrocarbon that occurs naturally in oil shale — can be converted to oil through a process called pyrolysis. However, that process requires large amounts of water, and the waste byproduct is much larger than the original shale mined, presenting a formidable disposal problem. Shell and Exxon-Mobil are both investigating ways to heat the shale while it's still in the ground, and then extract the oil. The largest oil shale deposits are in Colorado, which is not rich in the water resources.

Solar Energy

Industry and Science must develop a method of continued storage of solar energy, in forms other than batteries. Perhaps in the form of a chemical that can be accessed at a later date, perhaps in the form of a different type of molecule.

Solar Thermal Power systems

This method is obtained by magnifying the sun’s heat, directing it onto fluid-filled pipes, heating the fluid to boiling point.

The super-hot liquid is then used to power a turbine generator. You may be familiar with solar cells, which create electricity when photons from the sun force the transfer of electrons between layers of material. Solar trough plants, on the other hand, involve no chemical reactions. They utilize an array of mirrors to direct solar heat to a central pipeline filled with water.  One square mile of such collectors could provide power for more than 100,000 homes. Unfortunately, once again the problem arises when solar energy is not available, as the providers are forced to utilize other sources of energy.

This is a downside, but at least it provides for a reduction in Petroleum use, and every bit count’s.


Synthetic Petroleum

Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch developed a process of changing coal to oil. Today the term “Fischer-Tropsch” is seen frequently in articles about synthetic fuels. It now applies to a wide variety of similar processes for converting coal, biomass and other carbon intensive feedstocks into useable products such as diesel and jet fuel.


Fuel Cells

A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device. It produces electricity from fuel (on the anode side) and an oxidant (on the cathode side), which react in the presence of an electrolyte. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained.

 

Fuel cells are different from electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant, which must be replenished, whereas batteries store electrical energy chemically in a closed system. Additionally, while the electrodes within a battery react and change as a battery is charged or discharged, a fuel cell's electrodes are catalytic and relatively stable.

 

Many combinations of fuel and oxidant are possible. A hydrogen cell uses hydrogen as fuel and oxygen (usually from air) as oxidant. Other fuels include hydrocarbons and alcohols. Other oxidants include air, chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

 

Fuel cells generate electrical power quietly and efficiently, without pollution. Unlike power sources that use fossil fuels, the by-products from an operating fuel cell are heat and water.

 

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device. A fuel cell converts the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process it produces electricity.

 

The other electrochemical device that we are all familiar with is the battery. A battery has all of its chemicals stored inside, and it converts those chemicals into electricity too. This means that a battery eventually "goes dead" and you either throw it away or recharge it.

 

With a fuel cell, chemicals constantly flow into the cell so it never goes dead -- as long as there is a flow of chemicals into the cell, the electricity flows out of the cell. Most fuel cells in use today use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicals

 


Natural Gas (Principally Methane)

Natural Gas accounts for 24 percent of total energy consumed in the United States, making it a vital component of the nation's energy supply. The gas is clean burning, and is presently being considered as an alternative fuel for motor vehicles. Compressed natural gas (CNG) cars and trucks are already on the road in many areas. Companies using industrial processes that require high temperatures are also turning to natural gas instead of other fuels in order to reduce the air pollution emitted by their plants.

 

According to the Energy Information Administration, energy from natural gas accounts for 24 percent of total energy consumed in the United States, making it a vital component of the nation's energy supply.

 

Natural gas is used across all sectors, in varying amounts. The graph below gives an idea of the proportion of natural gas use per sector. The industrial sector accounts for the greatest proportion of natural gas use in the United States, with the residential sector consuming the second greatest quantity of natural gas.



By price comparison, today Natural Gas is the lowest cost source of energy.

 

Natural Gas by sector

Commercial

13%

Electric Power

30%

Industrial

34%

Residential

20%

Other

3%

 


Organic Fuels

      Organic fuels like biodiesel and grain ethanol ( also to mention; Ethanol is like an acid to Aluminum engines) are simply not viable options for large-scale energy consumption.

 


LNG

Liquefied petroleum gas

Domestic natural gas production has already peaked in the United States, which means more will have to be transported there from offshore and from other continents. In contrast to oil, natural gas must be super-cooled until it becomes a liquid and stored in special containers (When transported in LNG ships, the natural gas is chilled to below -400 degrees F, which compresses the gas 600 times its natural state. After it is shipped across water, liquid natural gas (LNG) must be converted back to gas form in expensive re-gasification plants before it can be piped to its destination.

Domestic natural gas production has already peaked in the United States, which means more will have to be transported there from offshore and from other continents. The infrastructure to do this hasn't been built yet, but will cost many billions of dollars over the next couple of decades, and lead to tremendous battles between developers who want to build re-gasification plants in coastal towns and local residents who won't want to host them.

The United States accounts for a quarter of the world's natural gas consumption, using it mainly to generate electricity (every power plant built in America in the past two decades has been gas-fired, interestingly, utilizing safe Nuclear power could totally provide the power that is generated by Natural Gas) and heat buildings. LNG currently accounts for two percent of U.S. consumption, but will make ups 15-20 percent by 2025.

 


Hydrogen

Hydrogen energy is a potential primary source of fuel for automobiles, as well as a potential source of energy for heating buildings and generating electricity. An electric car stores its energy on board, or it may generate energy using a fuel cell or generator. A fuel cell is a specialized form of battery that combines hydrogen with oxygen in a chemical reaction that produces electricity and water vapor. Unlike an electric cell or battery, a fuel cell does not run down or require recharging; it operates as long as the fuel and an oxidizer are supplied continuously from outside the cell. A fuel-cell power plant is up to 55% efficient, compared to a regular internal-combustion engine, which is only up to 30% efficient. Hydrogen has so many problems related to portability that it will probably never be used widely, but, improvement in technology usually pave the way for advancement.


Tidal Energy

Tides are basically big bulges of water created by the gravity of the sun and the moon. These bulges move around our planet, back and forth, creating currents and causing water levels to rise and drop. Since we know where the moon is at all times, we can predict the rise or fall of water levels and at which location it occurs. Usually it takes about twelve hours for water to rise and twelve hours to fall.

We can take advantage of this rise/fall phenomenon by harnessing renewable energy from it. By installing barrages (small damns), we can generate electricity from passing water by using turbines. Because the rise/fall phenomenon is always there, tidal power is a clean, non-polluting, renewable source of energy. Tidal turbines are up to 80% efficient in converting tidal energy to usable electricity. This is much higher than solar or wind energy generators. Compare this to your car engine, which is about 30% efficient at converting fuel in your tank to actual energy applied to the road.

Like Wind power in some locations, Tides are also predictable, but tidal power stations only generate power when the tide is flowing in or out of the basin, which only happens during certain times of the day. Consequently, other than when the power is being transmitted, other power sources will be for customers.

There are various methods of harnessing the tide; one effective method would be that of sinking specially designed bladed turbines, similar to above ground wind turbines. Anchored and attached to power cables back to a power distribution station.

Quick tip Fact: Thermal power plants- those that consume coal, oil, natural gas or uranium-generate more than 90% of U.S. Electricity.

 


ENERGY: What to Expect!


Short Term: Start working on Alternatives, ASAP.

 

Mid Term:

 

Long Term:

 


 

Alternatives sources for replacement of Petroleum,

 Corn husk, Corn Starch, Cane stalk, Repetitive Re-Cycling, Soy beans.


About Petrochemicals

Overview of the Chemical Petrochemicals Industry:

 

84% by volume of the hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels (petroleum-based fuels), including gasoline, diesel, jet, heating, and other fuel oils and liquefied petroleum gas

 

Petrochemicals are chemicals made from petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are made up of hydrocarbon molecules, which are comprised of one or more carbon atoms, to which hydrogen atoms are attached.


Currently, oil and gas are the main sources of the raw materials because they are the least expensive, most readily available, and can be processed most easily into the primary petrochemicals listed on the left.


Only about five percent of the oil and gas consumed each year is needed to make all the petrochemical products.

Petrochemicals have had a dramatic impact on our food, clothing, shelter and leisure. Some synthetics, tailored for particular uses, actually perform better than products made by nature because of their unique properties.

Overview of the Chemical Petrochemicals Industry:

 

Petrochemicals are chemicals made from petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are made up of hydrocarbon, which are comprised of one or more carbon atoms, to which hydrogen atoms are attached.


Currently, oil and gas are the main sources of the raw materials because they are the least expensive, most readily available, and can be processed most easily into the primary petrochemicals listed on the left.


Only about five percent of the oil and gas consumed each year is needed to make all the petrochemical products.

Petrochemicals have had a dramatic impact on our food, clothing, shelter and leisure. Some synthetics, tailored for particular uses, actually perform better than products made by nature because of their unique properties.

<>
<>

<>


Text Box: SomeText Box: Products

A small compilation in the down-line of products produced from Petroleum “OIL”

Due to its high energy density, easy transportability and relative abundance, oil has become the world's most important source of energy since the mid-1950s. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics; the 16% not used for energy production is converted into these other materials.

The argument with respect to oil drilling is not specifically about gasoline, diesel fuel and heating oil, but more about all of the other uses of Petroleum that is not for vehicle use, but the thousands of things from Petroleum that we use daily.

It would appear that it will be next to impossible to ever replace all of these products from alternative sources, but an all-out assault in seeking these alternatives is a must. There are thousands and thousands of products derived from Oil. The product line-up is staggering, ranging from bubble gum to wax paper. Imagine your World with no oil to make all of the petroleum-based products, as well as the failure of the economy.

 

Acrylic

Adhesives

Air conditioners

Air Filters

Air fresheners

Ammonia

Anesthetics

Anti-freeze (Glycol)

Antihistamines

Antiseptics

Artificial flavors colors

Artificial fragrances

Artificial limbs

Artificial turf

Asphalt

Aspirin

Audio and Video Cassettes

Automobile components:

Automobile head liner

Automotive accessory Belts

Automotive water hoses

Awnings

Baby bottles

Ball point pens

Balloons

Bandages

Barrels

Baseballs

Bathtubs

Batteries

Beach umbrellas

Birth control devices

Blankets

Boat hulls

Bottles

Bowls

Boxes

Bras

Brush handles

Bubble gum

Bubble Wrap

bumpers

Butane

Buttons

Cameras

Candles

Car batteries

Car bodies

Carpet cleaners

Carpeting

Cartons

Cassette tapes

Caulking

CDs and DVDs

Cell phones

Charcoal lighter fluid

Checkers

Chess sets

Chests

Chewing gum

Chocolate (some brands)

Clocks

Clothesline

Cold cream

Combs

Composites

Compounds

Computer Mouse

Computers & components

Conditioner

Cortisone

Counter drugs

Crayons

 

Credit cards

Cups

Curtains

Dashboards

Dental floss

Denture

Deodorant

Detergents

Diaphragms

Dice

Dishwasher detergent

Disinfectant

Disposable diapers

Drain cleaners

Dresses

Dryers

Dyes

Electric blankets

Electrician’s tape

Engine belts & hoses

Explosives

Extension cord insulation

Eyeglass lenses

Fabric softeners

False teeth

Faucet washers

Fertilizers

Fertilizers’

Fiberglass

Fire extinguishers

Fishing boots

Fishing lures

Fishing nets

Fishing rods

Flags

Flashlights

Flip Flops

Floor cleaner and wax

Floor mats

Floor wax

Food can liners

Food preservatives

Footballs

Fuel Additives

Game boy

Garden hoses

Gaskets

Gloves

Glues

Glycerin

Goggles

Golf bags

Golf balls

Golf carts

Grocery bags

Guitar strings

Gum

Hair (wigs)

Hair coloring

Hair curlers

Hairspray

Hand and body lotions

Hearing aids

Heart valves

Heating oil

House paint

Hubcaps

Hula Hoops

Hypodermic housings 

Ice cubes

Ice cubs holders

Industrial lubricants

Ink

 

Insect repellent

Insecticides and herbicides

Inside food cans/paper

Insulation

intrauterine devices

Ipods

Jar lids

Jet fuel

Kerosene

Keyboards

Knobs Lamps

Laundry detergents

Laundry Tubs

Life jackets

Linoleum Tile

Lip balm

Lipstick

Liquid and bar soaps

Loudspeakers

Lubrication oil

Luggage

Lycra

Magnetic storage tape

Mascara

Medicine bottles

Medicines

Moisturizers’

Mops

Most synthetic fabrics including

Motor oil

Motorcycle helmets

Motorcycles components

Movie film (acetate)

Nail brushes

Nail polish

Natural gas (methane)

Nylons

Oil filters

Oven cleaners

Pacifiers

Paddles

Paint brushes

Paint rollers

Paint thinner

Paints (oil based)

Panty hose

Parachutes

Paraffin

Perfumes & colognes

Petroleum jelly

Picture frames

Pillows

Plastic chairs

Plastic cups

Plastic food Packaging coatings

Plastic Ware

Plastic tables

plastic wrap

Plastics (All)

Play houses

Play Station

Plexiglass

Plywood adhesives

Polyester

polyurethane condoms

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipes

Power steering hoses

Prescriptions (OTC)

Preservatives in processed foods

Propane (LPG)

Purses

Putty

Refrigerators

 

Rods

Roller skate wheels

Roofing shingles

Rubber bands

Rubber cement

Rubber soles

Rubbing alcohol

Saccharin/ Sweet N Low

Safety glasses

Safety Helmets

Scrubber pads

Seatbelts

Shampoo

Shaving cream

Shirts

Shoe polish

Shoes

Shower curtains

Shower doors

Showers

Silverware/metal polish

Sinks

Skis

Slacks

Soccer balls

Soft contacts

Solvents

Sound insulation

Spandex

Speakers

Sponges

Spot/stain removers

Squeegees’

Stains

Straws

String

Stuffed animals

Sunglasses

Swimwear

Synthetics fabrics

Synthetic latex

Teething rings

Telephones

Tennis balls

Tennis rackets

Tents

Thermostats

Toilet bowl cleaner

Toilet seats

Toothbrushes

Toothpaste

Transparent tape

Trash baskets

Trays

Umbrellas

Upholstery

upholstery seat cushions

Vaporizers

Varnishes

Vinyl flooring

Vinyl siding

Vitamin capsules

Wax

Window cleaner

Windshield washer fluid belt

Wiper blades etc.

Wire insulation

Wrappers

X-box

Yarn

 

 


 

Mr. John Hofmeister, retired President of Shell Oil Company and Founder of CitizensforAffordableEnergy.org writes:


“The truth is there is no shortage of energy resources of any kind in our country. There is more oil available than we have ever consumed; more coal than any other country on earth; the opportunity for clean coal power production has never been better; more natural gas; more opportunity for liquefied natural gas; more oil in U.S. shale than in all of Saudi Arabia; more bio-fuels practically by the month; more solar; more wind; and more potential for hydrogen than ever before. Meanwhile we continue to benefit from robust hydro-power and nuclear energy production and out there in the future are more opportunities for geo-thermal power. The bottom line is the U.S. has ample energy resources for whatever we choose to do in the future.

Our problem is the lack of a comprehensive, holistic and coherent energy strategy for the short, medium- and long-term future. The nation has lacked a plan for generations.

 

Legal:  Lyntren Communications, Inc. provides no compensation to contributors.  Lyntren reserves the right to refuse any and all submissions. Lyntren Communications does not return any submissions or entries. The information contained in QuickTip.com is "AS IS", "WITH ALL FAULTS". User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. You agree that we have no liability for any damages whatsoever. We are not liable for any consequential, incidental, indirect, or special damages. You indemnify us for claims caused by you.

 

Click below for

 

  Copyright. QuickTip.com 2017-2020 All Rights Reserved

Division of Lyntren Communications, Incorporated

QThomebtn.gif