FOOD-SLEEP-ACTIVITY = A HEALTHY KID
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Approximately 3-5 percent of children have the principal characteristics of ADHD are "inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity". These symptoms appear early in a child’s life. Because many normal children may have these symptoms, but at a low level, or the symptoms may be caused by another disorder, it is important that the child receive a thorough examination and appropriate diagnosis by a well-qualified professional.
Symptoms of ADHD will appear over the course of many months, often with the symptoms of impulsiveness and hyperactivity preceding those of inattention, which may not emerge for a year or more. Different symptoms may appear in different settings, depending on the demands the situation may pose for the child’s self-control. A child who “can’t sit still” or is otherwise disruptive will be noticeable in school, but the inattentive daydreamer may be overlooked. The impulsive child who acts before thinking may be considered just a “discipline problem,” while the child who is passive or sluggish may be viewed as merely unmotivated. Yet both may have different types of ADHD. All children are sometimes restless, sometimes act without thinking, and sometimes daydream the time away. When the child’s hyperactivity, distractibility, poor concentration, or impulsivity begin to affect performance in school, social relationships with other children, or behavior at home, ADHD may be suspected. But because the symptoms vary so much across settings, ADHD is not easy to diagnose. This is especially true when inattentiveness is the primary symptom.
According to the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders2 (DSM-IV-TR), there are three patterns of behavior that indicate ADHD. People with ADHD may show several signs of being consistently inattentive. They may have a pattern of being hyperactive and impulsive far more than others of their age. Or they may show all three types of behavior. This means that there are three subtypes of ADHD recognized by professionals. These are the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (that does not show significant inattention); the predominantly inattentive type (that does not show significant hyperactive-impulsive behavior) sometimes called ADD—an outdated term for this entire disorder; and the combined type (that displays both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms).
Hyperactive children always seem to be “on the go” or constantly in motion. They dash around touching or playing with whatever is in sight, or talk incessantly. Sitting still at dinner or during a school lesson or story can be a difficult task. They squirm and fidget in their seats or roam around the room. Or they may wiggle their feet, touch everything, or noisily tap their pencil. Hyperactive teenagers or adults may feel internally restless. They often report needing to stay busy and may try to do several things at once.
Impulsive children seem unable to curb their immediate reactions or think before they act. They will often blurt out inappropriate comments, display their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for the later consequences of their conduct. Their impulsivity may make it hard for them to wait for things they want or to take their turn in games. They may grab a toy from another child or hit when they’re upset. Even as teenagers or adults, they may impulsively choose to do things that have an immediate but small payoff rather than engage in activities that may take more effort yet provide much greater but delayed rewards.
Some signs of hyperactivity-impulsivity are:
Children who are inattentive have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. If they are doing something they really enjoy, they have no trouble paying attention. But focusing deliberate, conscious attention to organizing and completing a task or learning something new is difficult.
Homework is particularly hard for these children. They will forget to write down an assignment, or leave it at school. They will forget to bring a book home, or bring the wrong one. The homework, if finally finished, is full of errors and erasures. Homework is often accompanied by frustration for both parent and child.
The DSM-IV-TR gives these signs of inattention:
Children diagnosed with the Predominantly Inattentive Type of ADHD are seldom impulsive or hyperactive, yet they have significant problems paying attention. They appear to be daydreaming, “spacey,” easily confused, slow moving, and lethargic. They may have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as other children. When the teacher gives oral or even written instructions, this child has a hard time understanding what he or she is supposed to do and makes frequent mistakes. Yet the child may sit quietly, unobtrusively, and even appear to be working but not fully attending to or understanding the task and the instructions.
These children don’t show significant problems with impulsivity and over activity in the classroom, on the school ground, or at home. They may get along better with other children than the more impulsive and hyperactive types of ADHD, and they may not have the same sorts of social problems so common with the combined type of ADHD. So often their problems with inattention are overlooked. But they need help just as much as children with other types of ADHD, who cause more obvious problems in the classroom.
Not everyone who is overly hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive has ADHD. Since most people sometimes blurt out things they didn’t mean to say, or jump from one task to another, or become disorganized and forgetful, how can specialists tell if the problem is ADHD?
Because everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, the diagnosis requires that such behavior be demonstrated to a degree that is inappropriate for the person’s age. The diagnostic guidelines also contain specific requirements for determining when the symptoms indicate ADHD. The behaviors must appear early in life, before age 7, and continue for at least 6 months. Above all, the behaviors must create a real handicap in at least two areas of a person’s life such as in the schoolroom, on the playground, at home, in the community, or in social settings. So someone who shows some symptoms but whose schoolwork or friendships are not impaired by these behaviors would not be diagnosed with ADHD. Nor would a child who seems overly active on the playground but functions well elsewhere receive an ADHD diagnosis.
To assess whether a child has ADHD, specialists consider several critical questions: Are these behaviors excessive, long-term, and pervasive? That is, do they occur more often than in other children the same age? Are they a continuous problem, not just a response to a temporary situation? Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one specific place like the playground or in the schoolroom? The person’s pattern of behavior is compared against a set of criteria and characteristics of the disorder
Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children (PATS)
Because many children in the preschool years are diagnosed with ADHD and are given medication, it is important to know the safety and efficacy of such treatment. The NIMH is sponsoring an ongoing multi-site study, “Preschool ADHD Treatment Study” (PATS). It is the first major effort to examine the safety and efficacy of a stimulant, methylphenidate, for ADHD in this age group. The PATS study uses a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Children ages 3 to 5 who have severe and persistent symptoms of ADHD that impair their functioning are eligible for this study. To avoid using medications at such an early age, all children who enter the study are first treated with behavioral therapy. Only children who do not show sufficient improvement with behavior therapy are considered for the medication part of the study. The study is being conducted at New York State Psychiatric Institute, Duke University, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, the University of California at Los Angeles, and the University of California at Irvine. Enrollment in the study will total 165 children.
Which Treatment Should My Child Have?
For children with ADHD, no single treatment is the answer for every child. A child may sometimes have undesirable side effects to a medication that would make that particular treatment unacceptable. And if a child with ADHD also has anxiety or depression, a treatment combining medication and behavioral therapy might be best. Each child’s needs and personal history must be carefully considered.
For decades, medications have been used to treat the symptoms of ADHD.
The medications that seem to be the most effective are a class of drugs known as stimulants. Following is a list of the stimulants, their trade (or brand) names, and their generic names. “Approved age” means that the drug has been tested and found safe and effective in children of that age.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a medication for ADHD that is not a stimulant. The medication, Strattera®, or atomoxetine, works on the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, whereas the stimulants primarily work on dopamine. Both of theses neurotransmitters are believed to play a role in ADHD. More studies will need to be done to contrast Strattera with the medications already available, but the evidence to date indicates that over 70 percent of children with ADHD given Strattera manifest significant improvement in their symptoms.
Some people get better results from one medication, some from another. It is important to work with the prescribing physician to find the right medication and the right dosage. For many people, the stimulants dramatically reduce their hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. The medications may also improve physical coordination, such as that needed in handwriting and in sports.
The stimulant drugs, when used with medical supervision, are usually considered quite safe. Stimulants do not make the child feel “high,” although some children say they feel different or funny. Such changes are usually very minor. Although some parents worry that their child may become addicted to the medication, to date there is no convincing evidence that stimulant medications, when used for treatment of ADHD, cause drug abuse or dependence. A review of all long-term studies on stimulant medication and substance abuse, conducted by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, found that teenagers with ADHD who remained on their medication during the teen years had a lower likelihood of substance use or abuse than did ADHD adolescents who were not taking medications.13
The stimulant drugs come in long- and short-term forms. The newer sustained-release stimulants can be taken before school and are long-lasting so that the child does not need to go to the school nurse every day for a pill. The doctor can discuss with the parents the child’s needs and decide which preparation to use and whether the child needs to take the medicine during school hours only or in the evening and on weekends too.
If the child does not show symptom improvement after taking a medication for a week, the doctor may try adjusting the dosage. If there is still no improvement, the child may be switched to another medication. About one out of ten children is not helped by a stimulant medication. Other types of medication may be used if stimulants don’t work or if the ADHD occurs with another disorder. Antidepressants and other medications can help control accompanying depression or anxiety.
Sometimes the doctor may prescribe for a young child a medication that has been approved by the FDA for use in adults or older children. This use of the medication is called “off label.” Many of the newer medications that are proving helpful for child mental disorders are prescribed off label because only a few of them have been systematically studied for safety and efficacy in children. Medications that have not undergone such testing are dispensed with the statement that “safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients.”
Side Effects of the Medications
Most side effects of the stimulant medications are minor and are usually related to the dosage of the medication being taken. Higher doses produce more side effects. The most common side effects are decreased appetite, insomnia, increased anxiety, and/or irritability. Some children report mild stomach aches or headaches.
Appetite seems to fluctuate, usually being low during the middle of the day and more normal by suppertime. Adequate amounts of food that is nutritional should be available for the child, especially at peak appetite times.
If the child has difficulty falling asleep, several options may be tried—a lower dosage of the stimulant, giving the stimulant earlier in the day, discontinuing the afternoon or evening dosage, or giving an adjunct medication such as a low-dosage antidepressant or clonidine. A few children develop tics during treatment. These can often be lessened by changing the medication dosage. A very few children cannot tolerate any stimulant, no matter how low the dosage. In such cases, the child is often given an antidepressant instead of the stimulant.
When a child’s schoolwork and behavior improve soon after starting medication, the child, parents, and teachers tend to applaud the drug for causing the sudden changes. Unfortunately, when people see such immediate improvement, they often think medication is all that’s needed. But medications don’t cure ADHD; they only control the symptoms on the day they are taken. Although the medications help the child pay better attention and complete school work, they can’t increase knowledge or improve academic skills. The medications help the child to use those skills he or she already possesses.
Behavioral therapy, emotional counseling, and practical support will help ADHD children cope with everyday problems and feel better about themselves.
Facts to Remember About Medication for ADHD
(ARA) – For
sheer learning potential, the brain of a child surpasses any man made super
computer. Researchers and child development experts agree. there
are a number of ways parents can help children make the most of their
Playing with your young children is the best way to make them into smart adults, researchers say—beating trendy toys, classes or music as a brain-building strategy for preschoolers.
foremost need is a secure relationship with an adult who loves them, said
Eric Knudsen of the Stanford University School of Medicine in Stanford,
Calif. “It’s all about playing with your child,” he added.
People with anorexia nervosa are often depressed. They choose not to eat despite their hunger and their very thin appearance. They often ‘feel fat’ even though they may actually be underweight. They may be thinking of food most of the time but they will not eat because for them eating normally would lead to terrifying weight gain.
The fear of becoming fat can override any sense of hunger so they don’t know when they are hungry, or they deny their hunger pain. They limit their food intake, are very choosy and may not eat many foods. Many also over exercise to lose weight, or work towards keeping a very low body weight. Not all those with anorexia nervosa are thin all the time. Their weight may vary but the anorexic thinking pattern may stay the same.
Sometimes anorexia nervosa begins with a weight loss after a physical illness or from dieting.
People with bulimia nervosa often have normal body weight or may be slightly overweight. This is another serious eating disorder where the sufferer has a similar fear of being overweight. The person gets caught up in a binge, purge, fast cycle.
The binge, purge, fast cycle is a hard pattern to break. People often binge to get rid of feelings they cannot manage, but this usually leads to more difficult feelings of guilt and gaining weight. They may then purge to get rid of these feelings at first and they may experience some relief from purging, but the guilt and self-hatred returns along with a feeling of being out of control. In an attempt to gain control and to feel better, they fast or don’t eat much but then the hunger leaves them more likely to start the cycle over again.
This can happen many times a day leaving people feeling depressed, sometimes suicidal, disgusted at themselves, withdrawn and having a belief that they are not able to control their behavior. They often feel responsible or to blame for this and may feel extremely embarrassed or ashamed.
It is important to realize that both anorexia and bulimia are serious problems and deserve specialized and sensitive care.
What causes an eating disorder?
There is not one single cause for an eating disorder. There is usually a combination of several or many different factors.
Some possible triggers for the disorder to begin may be chemical or hormone changes in the body at adolescence, worries or stress, or pressure from other people who say that to be attractive you have to be thin.
Some of the stresses or pressures that may contribute to eating disorders include:
Why are eating disorders serious?
If left untreated severe anorexia and bulimia can cause long term problems with physical and mental health. Some people will recover completely, others may not, and with some it can be fatal.
While the physical effects can be serious, they are generally reversible if treated in the early stages.
Most of the effects of severe anorexia are related to not getting adequate nutrition.
The physical effects can include:
Stress on the body from fasting, overeating and then vomiting can affect the body’s hormonal system and lead to massive changes in mood.
Severe bulimia is likely to cause erosion of the enamel on teeth from vomiting, swollen salivary glands, chronic sore throat and gullet, and the possibility of damage to the throat and stomach.
Other Issues that are also likely include:
Signs of eating disorders
Some people might have unusual eating habits but they are not really extreme. Others can have eating disorder symptoms that don’t fit into either anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. For example, some people with anorexia do know how thin they really are but still want to be thinner. Some people make themselves vomit but they don’t binge first. Some may not stop eating, but may restrict the amount they eat or have special rituals or very unusual behaviors around food.
Eating disorders can show up in what people do, but the underlying emotional stresses are not always easy to see.
These signs can have other causes besides an eating disorder but be aware of:
What parents can do
What help is available?
Noticing and responding to early warning signs and consulting a doctor is the most important thing to do first. No one wants to believe their child has a serious problem like an eating disorder but getting help early is the beginning of possibly breaking the cycle.
Once the illness has been diagnosed a range of health professionals may play a role in helping your child to recover. They may be doctors, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists, dietitians, social workers, occupational therapists and dentists.
Sometimes it may be necessary for a young person who is severely malnourished because of anorexia to spend some time in hospital. Outpatient treatment is generally preferred for those with bulimia.
Treatment may include counseling, and sometimes medication to help severe depression or to correct hormonal and chemical imbalances.
Dieticians who are trained in helping young people with eating disorders can help guide new healthy eating habits.
Tinea pedis, is a widely known skin disorder which is caused by a kind of fungus. There is still research going on for actual cause detection of Athlete's foot but it is mainly caused by a fungus, usually occurring between the toes.
The fungus causing tinea pedis as their general behavior suggests, prefers moist, warm skin - the reason for which tinea pedis favors the folds between the toes and is often worse in hot weather. This disease is contagious. The fungus can be spread from person to person by contact with these objects.
The Athlete's Foot we understand that the most important thing about 'shoes' is that they must fit and that means being properly fitted for better comfort and performance. In some people tinea pedis can get so bad that blisters form. Not all foot rashes are tinea pedis, only those caused by fungus growing on the skin.
The signs and symptoms of Athletes Foot includes
According to the specialists, Athletes Foot is of four types.
There are mainly four dermatophytes that can cause athlete's foot. The most common among them is trichophyton rubrum . The causes of Athletes Foot are listed below:
Tinea pedis is caused by a fungus that is only mildly contagious. Everyone is exposed to the fungus which causes tinea pedis; why only some people get it is unknown. Tinea pedis may stay in the skin indefinitely. Even if the rash seems to have been cured, microscopic examination may reveal the fungus to be present. While medicines will clear up the rash, the fungus may merely be "lying low" and may cause the same rash again. Athlete foot causes foot itching, burning, pain, and scaling. Athlete foot is caused by a fungus and is treated with antifungal medications, many of which are available over-the- counter. Keeping the feet dry by using cotton socks and breathable shoes can help prevent athletes foot
The treatment of Athlete foot are below includes following - Tinea pedis is usually well controlled by application of antifungal liquids, creams, or ointments. Lotrimin cream is an antifungal agent that can be bought without a prescription at your local drugstore. Severe cases of tinea pedis may benefit from Paravex , a potent natural solution or require griseofulvin, an antifungal medication taken by mouth. Sometimes infection with bacteria complicates tinea pedis and antibiotics are needed to kill the germs. If you have a tendency to develop tinea pedis, you should wear socks which are at least 60% cotton. You should change your shoes every day. Alternate 2-3 pairs of shoes, so the shoes will dry out completely before you use them again. In mild cases of the infection it is important to keep the feet dry by dusting foot powder in shoes and hose. The feet should be bathed frequently and all areas around the toes dried thoroughly. Tinea infections may disappear spontaneously and can persist for year.
Wear light and airy shoes. Wear socks that keep your feet dry, and change them frequently if you perspire heavily. Avoid walking barefoot; use shower shoes. Reduce perspiration by using talcum powder. Wear light and airy shoes. Wear socks that keep your feet dry, and change them frequently if you perspire heavily.
Backpacks come in all sizes, colors, fabrics, and shapes and aid children of all ages express their own sense of style. Used properly, they can be a useful tool. Many packs come with multiple compartments that help students stay organized while they tote their books and papers from home to school and back again. Compared to shoulder bags, messenger bags, or purses, backpacks are better because the strongest muscles in the body - the back and the abdominal muscles - support the weight of the packs. When worn correctly, the weight is evenly distributed across the child's body, and shoulder and neck injuries are less common than if the child carried a briefcase or purse.
And bulky or heavy backpacks don't just cause back injuries. Here are some other safety issues to consider:
Despite their potential problems, backpacks are an excellent tool for children when used properly. But before you buy that trendy new backpack your kid or teen has been begging you for, consider the backpack's construction.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that parents look for the following when choosing the right backpack:
Although packs on wheels (which look like small, overhead luggage bags) may be good options for students who have to lug around really heavy loads, they may be less practical than traditional backpacks because they're extremely difficult to pull up stairs and to roll through snow. Check with your child's school before buying your child a rolling pack; many schools don't allow them because they can pose a tripping hazard in the hallways.
Some easy steps your child can take to prevent injury when using a backpack:
specialist, Increasingly concerned about the issue of children’s health and
safety with their backpacks recomend that your child carry no more than 10-15% of their body
weight in their loaded backpack, so pack only what is needed. Add up all of
the items your child is carrying in their backpack, and it could be as much
as 25% of their body weight. Purchasing a properly fitted pack enhances your
childs natural ability to carry weight properly and balanced, reducing stress
on their body. The wise move on your part is to purchase sophisticated suspension systems
that fits the body snugly and moves with the torso during activity. These
systems also distribute the pack's weight evenly to prevent neck and shoulder
(http://www.chiro.org/LINKS/backpacks.shtml / http://www.chiro.org/ )
Practice safety and you will have a wonderful time, ignore common safety and you might be on your back with something broken.
A head injury can mean brain injury. That's why it's so important to wear your bike helmet. Wearing one doesn't mean you can be reckless, but a helmet will provide some protection for your head and brain in case you fall down.
Bike helmets are so important that the U.S. government has created safety standards for them. Your helmet should have a sticker that says it meets standards set by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). If your helmet doesn't have a CPSC sticker, ask your mom or dad to get you one that does. Always wear a bike helmet, even if you are going for a short ride.
Your bike helmet should fit you properly. You don't want it too small or too big. Never wear a hat under your bike helmet. If you're unsure if your helmet fits you well, ask someone at a bike store.
Once you have the right helmet, you need to wear it the right way so it will protect you. It should be worn level and cover your forehead. Don't tip it back so your forehead is showing. The straps should always be fastened. If the straps are flying, it's likely to fall off your head when you need it most. Make sure the straps are adjusted so they're snug enough that you can't pull or twist the helmet around on your head.
Take care of your bike helmet and don't throw it around. That could damage the helmet and it won't protect you as well when you really need it. If you do fall down and put your helmet to the test, be sure to get a new one. They don't work as well after a major crash.
Many bike helmets today are lightweight and come in cool colors. If you don't love yours as it is, personalize it with some of your favorite stickers. Reflective stickers are a great choice because they look cool and make you more visible to people driving cars.
Riding a bike that is the right size for you also help keeps you safe.
Do go over this checklist with your parent.
Wearing bright clothes and putting reflectors on your bike also can help you stay safe. It helps other people on the road see you. And if they see you, that means they're less likely to run into you.
You'll also want to make sure that nothing will get caught in your bike chain, such as loose pant legs, backpack straps, or shoelaces. Wear the right shoes — sneakers — when you bike. Sandals, flip-flops, shoes with heels, and cleats won't help you grip the pedals. And never go riding barefoot! Riding gloves may help you grip the handlebars — and make you look like a professional!
But avoid wearing headphones because the music can distract you from noises around you, such as a car blowing its horn so you can get out of the way.
You need to check with your parents about where you're allowed to ride your bike. You need to know how far you're allowed to go and whether you should ride on the sidewalk on in the street. Kids younger than 10 years should ride on the sidewalk and avoid the street. No matter where you ride, you need to keep an eye out for cars and trucks. Even if you're just riding on sidewalk, a car may pull out of its driveway into the path of your bike. If you're crossing a busy road, it's best to walk your bike across the street.
A bike path free of cars is a great choice if there's one in your area. Just remember to share the path with the other riders, walkers, and strollers who also might be using it! And if you're going on a long ride, bring some water along with you.
Experimentation with alcohol during the teen years is common. Some reasons that teens use alcohol and other drugs are:
Alcohol seems harmless to many teens, It is not!.
Teen drinkers are more likely to get fat or have health problems, too. Many people who continue drinking heavily well into adulthood risk damaging their organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain.
· Alcohol is a powerful drug that slows down the body and mind. It impairs coordination; slows reaction time; and impairs vision, clear thinking, and judgment.
· Beer and wine are not “safer” than hard liquor. A 12-ounce can of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, and 1.5 ounces of hard liquor all contain the same amount of alcohol and have the same effects on the body and mind.
· On average, it takes 2 to 3 hours for a single drink to leave a person’s system. Nothing can speed up this process, including drinking coffee, taking a cold shower, or “walking it off.”
· People tend to be very bad at judging how seriously alcohol has affected them. That means many individuals who drive after drinking think they can control a car—but actually cannot.
· Anyone can develop a serious alcohol problem, including a teenager.
· You want your child to avoid alcohol. Clearly state your own expectations about your child’s drinking. Your values and attitudes count with your child, even though he or she may not always show it.
· To maintain self-respect. Teens say the best way to persuade them to avoid alcohol is to appeal to their self-respect—let them know that they are too smart and have too much going for them to need the crutch of alcohol. Teens also are likely to pay attention to examples of how alcohol might lead to embarrassing situations or events—things that might damage their self-respect or alter important relationships.
· Drinking is illegal. Because alcohol use under the age of 21 is illegal, getting caught may mean trouble with the authorities. Even if getting caught doesn’t lead to police action, the parents of your child’s friends may no longer permit them to associate with your child.
· Drinking can be dangerous. One of the leading causes of teen deaths is motor vehicle crashes involving alcohol. Drinking also makes a young person more vulnerable to sexual assault and unprotected sex. And while your teen may believe he or she wouldn’t engage in hazardous activities after drinking, point out that because alcohol impairs judgment, a drinker is very likely to think such activities won’t be dangerous.
· You have a family history of alcoholism. If one or more members of your family have suffered from alcoholism, your child may be somewhat more vulnerable to developing a drinking problem.
· Alcohol affects young people differently than adults. Drinking while the brain is still maturing may lead to long-lasting intellectual effects and may even increase the likelihood of developing alcohol dependence later in life.
Today, athletes and others abuse anabolic steroids to enhance performance and also to improve physical appearance. Anabolic steroids are taken orally or injected, typically in cycles of weeks or months (referred to as “cycling”), rather than continuously. Cycling involves taking multiple doses of steroids over a specific period of time, stopping for a period, and starting again. In addition, users often combine several different types of steroids to maximize their effectiveness while minimizing negative effects (referred to as “stacking”).
The major side effects from abusing anabolic steroids can include liver tumors and cancer, jaundice (yellowish pigmentation of skin, tissues, and body fluids), fluid retention, high blood pressure, increases in LDL (bad cholesterol), and decreases in HDL (good cholesterol). Other side effects include kidney tumors, severe acne, and trembling. In addition, there are some gender-specific side effects:
In addition, people who inject anabolic steroids run the added risk of contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or hepatitis, which causes serious damage to the liver.
Scientific research also shows that aggression and other psychiatric side effects may result from abuse of anabolic steroids. Many users report feeling good about themselves while on anabolic steroids, but researchers report that extreme mood swings also can occur, including manic-like symptoms leading to violence. Depression often is seen when the drugs are stopped and may contribute to dependence on anabolic steroids. Researchers report also that users may suffer from paranoid jealousy, extreme irritability, delusions, and impaired judgment stemming from feelings of invincibility.1
Research also indicates that some users might turn to other drugs to alleviate some of the negative effects of anabolic steroids.
a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered, hydrochloride salt form
of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Crack is
cocaine that has not been neutralized by an acid to make the hydrochloride
salt. This form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal that can be heated and its
vapors smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard
when it is heated.*
Cocaine is a strong central
nervous system stimulant that interferes with the reabsorption process of
dopamine, a chemical messenger associated with pleasure and movement. The
buildup of dopamine causes continuous stimulation of receiving neurons, which
is associated with the euphoria commonly reported by cocaine abusers.
widespread abuse of cocaine has stimulated extensive efforts to develop
treatment programs for this type of drug abuse.
-Ecstasy (MDMA) (3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. Street names for MDMA include Ecstasy, Adam, XTC, hug, beans, and love drug. MDMA is an illegal drug that acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic, producing an energizing effect, as well as distortions in time and perception and enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences.
MDMA exerts its primary effects in the brain on neurons that use the chemical serotonin to communicate with other neurons. The serotonin system plays an important role in regulating mood, aggression, sexual activity, sleep, and sensitivity to pain.
people, MDMA can be addictive. A survey of young adult and adolescent MDMA
users found that 43 percent of those who reported ecstasy use met the
accepted diagnostic criteria for dependence, as evidenced by continued use
despite knowledge of physical or psychological harm, withdrawal effects, and
tolerance (or diminished response), and 34 percent met the criteria for drug
abuse. Almost 60 percent of people who use MDMA report withdrawal symptoms,
including fatigue, loss of appetite, depressed feelings, and trouble
Although they differ in
makeup, nearly all abused inhalants produce short-term effects similar to
anesthetics, which act to slow down the body’s functions. When inhaled in
sufficient concentrations, inhalants can cause intoxication, usually lasting
only a few minutes.
Serious but potentially reversible effects include:
Extent of Use
Initial use of inhalants often starts early. Some young people may use inhalants as an easily accessible substitute for alcohol. Research suggests that chronic or long-term inhalant abusers are among the most difficult drug abuse patients to treat. Many suffer from cognitive impairment and other neurological dysfunction and may experience multiple psychological and social problems.
The way the drug affects each person depends on many factors, including:
Some people feel nothing at
all when they smoke marijuana. Others may feel relaxed or high. Sometimes
marijuana makes users feel thirsty and very hungry—an effect called "the
Are a very addictive
stimulant drug that activates certain systems in the brain. It is chemically
related to amphetamine but, at comparable doses, the effects of
methamphetamine are much more potent, longer lasting, and more harmful to the
central nervous system (CNS).
increases the release of very high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine,
which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and body movement. Chronic
methamphetamine abuse significantly changes how the brain functions. Animal
research going back more than 30 years shows that high doses of methamphetamine
damage neuron cell endings. Dopamine- and serotonin-containing neurons do not
die after methamphetamine use, but their nerve endings
("terminals") are cut back, and regrowth appears to be limited.
Noninvasive human brain imaging studies have shown alterations in the
activity of the dopamine system. These alterations are associated with
reduced motor speed and impaired verbal learning. Recent studies in chronic
methamphetamine abusers have also revealed severe structural and functional
changes in areas of the brain associated with emotion and memory, which may
account for many of the emotional and cognitive problems observed in chronic
Herpes Simplex being a common skin disorder is spread by the person who carry herpes. The carrier of the disease does not even know about it. Herpes simplex is a Disease which consists of infection that affects the mouth. Herpes is a contagious infection that's caused by the herpes simplex virus.
Herpes simplex is commonly referred to as cold sores or fever blisters. It is a viral infection of the skin that may occur once or return again and again. A mother who has genital herpes can pass the infection on to her newborn if she delivers the baby vaginally. A finger infection, called herpetic whitlow, is another form of herpes infection. It usually affects health care providers who are exposured to oral secretions during procedures. Sometimes, young children contract the disease.
Symptoms of Herpes Simplex when they occur tend to be milder and heal much more quickly, typically within two to twelve days. Herpes Simplex Infections with the virus that causes genital herpes are common among teen girls. Herpes Simplex the incidence and prevalence of both strains of the virus among adolescent women.
Both types of the virus can be transmitted through direct contact. They can be mild for one individual and severe for another. A person can get the cold sores of HSV1 by kissing or sharing eating utensils with an infected person.
Main cause of Herpes Simplex is the Virus. The description of the causes is as follows:
There are two kinds of herpes virus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 virus causes 60% of the cold sores so common on the lips and face. The other 40% of cases are caused by type 2. On the genitalia these percentages are reversed, that is 40% of genital herpes cases are caused by type 1 and 60% of cases are caused by type 2.
especially really young ones have much more light sleep than adults and older
children. This means that they have more opportunities to wake up and when
they do, many infants need help to get back to sleep.
Establish a routine and repeat it every night around the same time. This may involve giving your baby a bath, changing them, having a story together and then settling your child to sleep.
Same Place. Always try to put your baby down to sleep in the same place. This way your baby will associate that place with sleep time.
Work out a simple bedtime routine, such as a soft music lullaby music to help soothe them off to sleep, or a gentle massage. It is amazing how a gentle massage to an infant will relax them. Repeat this every night and your baby will also learn this is another cue to sleep, keep in mind that gently patting your baby may also calm them to sleep..
Make sure the sleeping area is dimly lit, close the curtains or blinds, also no bright lights and unnecessary activity, this usually keeps babies awake.
If your baby wakes up, check if he / she needs a diaper change or is your baby feeling too cold or hot.
If your baby wakes after they have settled, stay in the bedroom to soothe your child back to sleep.
Rocking and walking with baby in your arms often settles a crying baby.
Baby Tooth Care
- Start cleaning your child's mouth even before her teeth come in. Wipe the gums off after each feeding with a warm, wet washcloth or a dampened piece of gauze wrapped around your finger. You can also buy thimble-like, soft rubbery devices (they fit over your index finger) to use for rubbing off excess food.
-Once the teeth begin coming in, start taking care of them right away. Many parents think baby teeth aren't important because they're eventually replaced by permanent ones. But these first teeth preserve the spacing for the permanent ones and help baby chew and talk. If they're not cared for properly the can decay, leading to a gum infection called gingivitis, which can affect the spacing of permanent teeth.
- Watch for cavities. The first signs of cavities in baby teeth are discoloration and minor pitting. Putting baby to bed with a bottle of milk (or worse, juice) is notorious for causing cavities. Don't leave your infant with a bottle for long periods of time, especially if you notice he's no longer feeding and is just using the bottle for comfort.
- Follow meals with water. Most infant foods easily wash off baby's teeth with just a drink of water after meals. But it's good to introduce a toothbrush (choose a very soft one) as soon as possible, so baby can get used to having it in his mouth. You probably won't need to use the brush to actually clean baby's teeth until he's eating only table foods (and has a significant number of teeth), at around 18 months. However, you'll want to gently clean your child's teeth with a toothbrush or thimblelike cleaner and some bicarbonate of soda if your toddler has eaten sticky, sugary foods.
- Begin using a pea-size amount of non-fluoride toothpaste once baby is about age 2. Wait until at least age 3, when your child is old enough not to swallow the toothpaste, before introducing the fluoride kind.
- Regulate baby's fluoride intake.. Even though your baby isn't using a fluoride toothpaste, he should get enough fluoride -- important for preventing tooth decay -- from drinking tap water. Most communal water supplies have it added just for this beneficial purpose. Ask your doctor about fluoride supplements baby can take once he's 6 months old if your tap water is not fluoridated or your child doesn't drink any tap water.
-Schedule a dental exam. Your baby should receive their first dental exam at age 1, but most pediatricians agree that the first visit can wait until age 3, as long as you practice good home care.
The American Dental Association
Check with your doctor; more than likely, he or she won't recommend a daily bath for your newborn.
The frequency depends on
your climate, your baby's health, and the time of year. Sponge baths are a
good idea until baby is about 6 weeks old. Use warm water and a soft cloth to
clean all those baby parts that need special attention--first the face and
then the neck, hands, and diaper area. Of course, bathe more often as the
situation requires--after all, babies can get a bit messy. When your baby
starts to eat solid foods (between 4 and 6 months) the mess will begin,
you'll need to bathe your baby more often.
Each year, about 50 children drown in the bathtub because they were unsupervised.
-Until your baby is several months
old, shampoo his hair about once a week. Use a mild no-tears formula, and
place a washcloth on his forehead to help keep drips out of his eyes. Of
course, if your baby has lots of hair, shampoo whenever necessary.
-When tub time is done, bundle up baby in a clean, soft towel, and dry him off by gently patting (not rubbing) his skin and hair. Then take a deep breath and enjoy the wonderful fresh smell of your little one.
The kitchen sink will do if your baby fits in it comfortably. Do be careful that the faucets don't hit the child, and line the sink with a towel for their sponge bath.
The bathtub will be your choice when baby grows too big
for the sink and can sit up on his own, which will happen around 6 months
old. Never leave your baby in a tub unattended, regardless of how little
water (Two (2") inches of water are adequate for a child to drown) is in
Tips for Your Baby's Safety
From the beginning of a child's life, products, such as cribs, high chairs and other equipment intended for a child must be selected with safety in mind. Parents and caretakers of babies and young children need to be aware of the many potential hazards in their environment - hazards occurring through misuse of products or those involved with products that have not been well designed for use by children.
This checklist is a safety guide to help you when buying new or secondhand nursery equipment. It also can be used when checking over nursery equipment now in use in your home or in other facilities that car for infants and young children.
ASK YOURSELF: DOES THE EQUIPMENT HAVE THE SAFETY FEATURES IN THIS CHECKLIST? IF NOT, CAN MISSING OR UNSAFE PARTS BE EASILY REPLACED WITH THE PROPER PARTS? CAN BREAKS OR CRACKS BE REPAIRED TO GIVE MORE SAFETY? CAN I FIX THE OLDER EQUIPMENT WITHOUT CREATING A "NEW" HAZARD?
If most of your answers are "NO," the equipment is beyond help and should be discarded. If the equipment can be repaired, do the repairs before you allow any child to use it.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission's concern is that the children in your care have a safe environment in which to grow.
Infectious mononucleosis "mono" or "the kissing disease," is an infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is very common, and many people have been exposed to the virus at some time in childhood
Not everyone who is exposed to EBV develops the symptoms of mono, though. As with many viruses, it is possible to be exposed to and infected with EBV without becoming sick.
People who have been infected with EBV will carry the virus for the rest of their lives — even if they never have any signs or symptoms of mono. People who do show symptoms of having mono probably will not get sick or have symptoms again.
One common way to "catch" mono is by kissing someone who has been infected, which is how the illness got its "kissing disease" nickname. If you have never been infected with EBV, kissing someone who is infected can put you at risk for getting the disease.
But what if you haven't kissed anyone? You can also get mononucleosis through other types of direct contact with saliva (spit) from someone infected with EBV, such as by sharing a straw, a toothbrush, or an eating utensil.
Some people who have the virus in their bodies never have any symptoms, but it is still possible for them to pass it to others. Experts believe that EBV can even spread from people who had the virus months before.
Symptoms usually begin to appear 4 to 7 weeks after infection with the virus. Signs that you may have mono include:
People who have mono may have different combinations of these symptoms, and some may have symptoms so mild that they hardly notice them. Others may have no symptoms at all.
Even if you have several of these symptoms, don't try to diagnose yourself. Always consult your doctor if you have a fever, sore throat, and swollen glands or are unusually tired for no apparent reason.
Because the symptoms of mono are so general and can be signs of other illnesses, it's possible to mistake mononucleosis for the flu, strep throat, or other diseases. In fact, occasionally some people may have mono and strep throat at the same time.
When making a diagnosis, the doctor may want to take some blood tests to see if mono is causing the symptoms. But even if the blood tests indicate mono, there isn't much the doctor can do other than advise a person to drink lots of fluids and get plenty of rest.
There is no cure for mononucleosis. But the good news is that even if you do nothing, the illness will go away by itself, usually in 3 to 4 weeks. Because mono is caused by a virus, antibiotics such as penicillin won't help unless you have an additional infection like strep throat. In fact, certain antibiotics can even cause a rash if you take them while you have mono.
Although there's no magic pill for mono, you can do some things to feel better. The best treatment is to get plenty of rest, especially during the beginning stages of the illness when your symptoms are the worst. Put yourself to bed and pass on school, sports, and other activities.
For the fever and aching muscles, try taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Steer clear of aspirin unless your doctor tells you to take it: Aspirin has been linked to a serious disease in kids and teens called Reye syndrome, which can lead to liver failure and death.
If you have a sore throat, chew gum, drink tea with honey, or suck on hard candy or ice pops. Even if you're not hungry, try to eat a well-balanced diet and drink lots of water and juices to prevent dehydration. You can get some nutrition and soothe your throat with cold fruit smoothies or low-fat shakes.
When you start feeling better, take it slow. Although you can return to school once your fever disappears, you may still feel tired. Your body will tell you when it's time to rest — listen to it. By taking good care of yourself and resting as much as you need to, you will soon be back to normal, usually within a few weeks.
Doctors also recommend avoiding sports for at least a month after the illness because the spleen (an organ in the body that sits under the left rib cage) is often enlarged temporarily while you are ill. An enlarged spleen can rupture easily, causing internal bleeding and abdominal pain and requiring emergency surgery. Do not participate in contact sports, cheerleading, or even wrestling with your little siblings or your friends until your doctor gives you permission.
As you recover, make sure you don't share the virus with your friends and family. Chances are they will not get the disease from casual contact with you, but you can take a few steps to help them stay germ free. Wash your hands often, cover your nose and mouth when you sneeze or cough, and keep your drinks and eating utensils to yourself. This is one time when your friends and family will thank you for being selfish.
All of us
make a hormone called insulin that helps break down the food you eat every
day. Every time you eat something, your body turns that food into glucose,
which is what you use for energy. If a person has diabetes, his or her body
either has trouble producing enough insulin to do this, or it's not able to
use the insulin it makes. Either way, their cells can't use the energy from
the food they eat, and they build up too much sugar in their blood and urine.
Provided with the proper instruction and assistance, a child with dyslexia can learn to read, thrive in school, and succeed in the workforce. But it's important for the child to be diagnosed as early as possible and to promptly get any needed support and assistance.
The specific reason why some people process information this way is unknown, though genetics may play a role, as Dyslexia runs in families
FOR KIDS: Their voices and their legs are their best defense.
good eating habits for your child
Some Healthy snack foods*
preschool age and younger can easily choke on foods that are hard to chew,
small and round, or sticky, such as hard vegetables, whole grapes, hard
chunks of cheese, raisins, nuts and seeds, and popcorn. Carefully select
snacks for children in this age group.
The good and the Bad (Know the difference)
You can make a big difference in your children's future by asking them to take out the trash. And do the laundry, wash the dishes, make the beds, put away the toys
Children in household tasks at an early age can have a positive impact later in life. By involving children in tasks, parents teach their children a sense of responsibility, competence, self-reliance, and self-worth that stays with them throughout their lives.
learned via household tasks is best when learned young.
3 yr old: Pick up personal items in their room and around the house, this includes their soiled clothes. Help set table for meals, as well as help clean up table after eating.
4 yr old: Keep room neat and picked up, to include putting away clean & folding clothing. Daily responsibility of bringing in the mail and newspaper.
<>5 yr old: Walking the family pet, as long as the pet is not to large. Feeding the family pet, rinsing the dishes after meals and putting them away after they have been washed (a little early for washing) Emptying the trash. Help with putting away groceries.
6-7 yr old: Wash and dry dishes, Trash out for weekly street collection. Cleaning up after family pet. Dusting, vacuuming.
8-9 yr old: Wash and dry laundry, Furniture polishing.
10 + yr old: Yard work and helping clean bathroom, especially their own.
How you present household chores will also influences children's abilities to become well-adjusted adults. The tasks should not be too overwhelming, parents should present the tasks in a way that fits the child's preferred learning curve, and children should be involved in determining the tasks they will complete. Your child's knowledge that they are contributing to the household provides them with a since of accomplishment and pride. Sit down with your family and create a task chart for your kids, spelling out their contribution. They should not be made to do the tasks for an allowance. The earlier parents begin getting children to take an active role in the household, the easier it will be to get them involved as teens.
child doesn't do their designated tasks, don't you do them. Eventually, your
child will get the feeling that their efforts are important to the overall
functioning of the family. Do not complain that your child doesn't do it
their chore properly, at least initially. They will be less likely to help
out willingly. Rarely will any child do a job as well as a parent might, but
don't complain. With younger children, you'll need patience because, as a
beginner, children will need to learn over and over how to do a particular
job. Be generous with your praise.
Nasal spray (Salt) twice daily in each nostril.
Is My Child Ready For Kindergarten?
When children turn five years old, many parents question whether or not their child is ready for kindergarten. There is a lot of advice floating about these days, and not all of it is helpful. Hard and fast rules such as "never send a summer birthday, five-year-old boy to kindergarten" are not appropriate.
School readiness is more complex than sex and chronological age.
School readiness is more complex than sex and chronological age. It is also not simply being able to recite numbers, letters, shapes, and colors. School readiness is a constellation or combination of many factors. Few children are complete ready or not ready for kindergarten, and most will fall somewhere in between on a continuum of readiness.
Here are some developmental skills to look for in a school-ready child:
· able to trust other adults and children
· able to play with, not just next to, other children
· able to learn and play in a group
· some degree of independence and self-direction
· self-control or ability to delay gratification (even briefly)
· reasonably confident and willing to try new things
· interested in school and in learning new things
· able to understand directions
· able to express needs
· able to communicate with adults and other children
· can express thoughts in sentences
· reasonably broad vocabulary
· can run and jump (if not handicapped)
· sense of spatial awareness and balance
· shows right or left dominance
· has self-help skills: dressing, eating, and toileting
· able to manipulate small objects
· can copy simple symbols
· can hold a pencil appropriately
Intellectual and Academic Development
· able to focus and concentrate on an activity for 10 to 15 minutes
· understands that letters stand for something
· understands that printed text is spoken language written down
· has had experiences with environment (grocery store, post office, library, department store, etc.)
· can follow simple directions and remember simple routines
· able to stick with and solve simple problems
Researchers have identified elements of homes that prepare children for school. Indeed, the "academic culture" of the home appears more influential than either income level or parents' level of education.
Parents can prepare their children for school by communicating that school is important and by helping them develop the language skills and social behaviors needed for school.
It is important that parents feel and communicate that school is important and do their best to ensure their child's regular school attendance. Parents can model appropriate use of written materials, whether they are TV Guides, magazines, newspapers, or books. Using language often with children is important. This includes talking about events and feelings, in addition to giving directives. Finally, parent-child interaction which demonstrates social behaviors needed for school, such as complying with rules and expectations and delaying immediate gratification, is critical.
Obviously, it is important for parents to do their best to ensure that their children are healthy and consume reasonably nutritious foods in adequate amounts. Less obvious is the need for parents to monitor and control the amount and content of television watching in the household.
Children who watch excessive amounts of television are losing precious time that could otherwise be spent in more mentally and physically challenging activities.
Reading to children prepares them for school in a variety of ways.
Finally, parents who read to their children for as little as ten minutes daily at bedtime are giving their children a bouquet of important readiness activities. These include close body contact (which promotes security and independence), practice in learning and using language skills, vicarious learning about the world and its peoples, and maybe most important, the concept that reading is fun.
Additional factors may affect children's readiness for kindergarten, such as temperament and activity level. However, it is important to realize that not all kindergartens, whether publicly or privately sponsored, use developmentally appropriate teaching methods. Excessive dependence on worksheets and "seat work" which require children sit still, be quiet, and focus on abstract tasks for extended periods of time are NOT appropriate.
Children learn by doing, experiencing, and interacting with the people and objects in their environment. Therefore, the question is not simply "Is my child ready for kindergarten?" but "Is the kindergarten ready for my child?"
The “Question About Kids” series is published by the Center for Early Education and Development to provide state-of-the-art information about young children and families. They are reviewed by a panel of child development experts at the University of Minnesota. For further information, contact the Center at 612-624-5780.
University of Minnesota
Copyright © 2004 by Center for Early Education and Development
These materials may be freely reproduced for education/training or related activities. There is no requirement to obtain special permission for such uses. We do, however, ask that the following citation appear on all reproductions:
Reprinted with permission of the Center for Early Education and Development (CEED), College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota, 40 Education Sciences Building, 56 East River Road, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455-0223; phone: 612-625-3058; fax: 612-625-2093; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, web site: http://cehd.umn.edu/ceed.
-It's Deadly Poisoning effects-
Is a Neurotoxin, too much in your system can cause irreparable damage to the brain and the central nervous system. It accumulates in the Bones and Blood. Levels measured in the US today; show that we have over 675 times more lead in our bodies than were present 100 years ago.
Eating Tip: After eating, it usually takes about 20 minutes for your brain to realize that you’re full. Between bites, chew slowly; and savor the flavor. You will not eat nearly as much, and consequently your child will have potential weight loss.
seem that manners and politeness have disappeared. Often in today's
society is would appear that politeness has all but disappeared in our youth,
but just about the time you feel that it has vanished, you come across youths
that bring a smile to your face, as all is not lost.. The appearance of
thoughtfulness or consideration and common courtesy and tactfulness brought
about by a meeting, can make your day. It is so important to express words of
praise and teach our children to use politeness at all times.
When your kids display proper manners at home or in public, give them immediate positive feedback. It's more critical that you do this during the early "learning phase" of manners instruction, but even older children need to occasionally hear how proud you are of their behavior and manners.
Do be patient as your children will make mistakes. The more patient you are, the more progress they will ultimately make. You should not reprimand a child's social errors in public, although firm reminders may at times be in order. Remember that children want to please adults, albeit in their own way. If, for example, your child forgets to extend his or her hand upon meeting an adult, quietly ask, "What are we supposed to do when we meet someone older than ourselves?" That gives the child the opportunity to do the right thing without feeling he or she is being criticized.
as I say, not as I do" approach to manners simply won't work. Your
children must see you setting a good example when it comes to manners. And by
the way, manners are not a one-way street. If you want your children to
behave in a mannerly way toward you, then you must behave in a mannerly way
toward them as well
to hear someone say, “thanks” when they do something, or when someone else
does something. It does a person's heart good to hear those words. How often
do you hear, "have a good day" from youth with sincere conviction
at a drive-up window or the take out counter? Not very often, when you hear
it, it is "robot talk" with little or none expression of sincerity.
Your child should try to send it within a few days of receiving the gift, but the most important thing is to be sincere." If your child can write, let them do it himself. Perhaps there will be a few spelling mistakes, but that will just make the note more authentic. Help with the basics -- make sure there is mention the gift and how much your child is enjoying it and appreciate the thought behind the gift.
There is not a friend or relative who wish to be taken granted, should you question this wisdom, simply ask yourself, " wouldn't you expect a "Thank you"?
QuickTip Teeth Care:
You must encourage your child to exercise, because they
Tips for better child health:
Make sure that your child eats breakfast.
Fill them up with energizing high-fiber cereal, whole-grain bread and fruit.
It is the energy that allows them to learn in school..
child learns about proper eating habits today, will determine their eating
habits for the rest of their life.
That Second wind: Snack on fiber rich munches such as dried apricots, celery sticks, an apple or a few pistachio nuts. The fiber helps control the release of glucose (a sugar) into your bloodstream and may prevent energy dips.
Is your child logging more time in front of the television, computer and video screens, their physical activity levels decreasing, while their body weights have increased. It is up to you, the parent to take charge and re-direct their activities, for the sake of their health.
Children who are teased a lot can develop low self-esteem and depression. While children can play ball at the local park and choose healthier foods in school, at the end of the day family support is what really counts. You are a role model for your kids. Children form habits from parents.
Reaching and maintaining an appropriate body weight is important. That's why recommendations that focus on small but permanent changes in eating may work better than a series of short-term changes that can't be sustained.
most overweight children, the main emphasis should be to prevent weight
gain above what's appropriate for expected increases in height.
When most parents hear the term "peer pressure", they almost immediately envision their teenager being forced into situations that they wouldn't normally be in just to keep up with their friends. However, peer pressure can also be positive. It's difficult for any parent to decipher which pressures are positive and which are negative, especially as teens mature and try to find their individuality. During teen years, adolescents are more likely to seek the opinions and acceptance of friends rather than family. No influence in a teenager's life is as powerful as peer pressure. However, there are some techniques that parents can use to teach their children about peer pressure, the difference between positive and negative peer pressure, and how to deal with negative peer pressure.
Positive Peer Pressure
Negative Peer Pressure
Research has shown that teens look to their peer groups for social and emotional support. In order to keep that support they are more likely to give in to negative peer pressure. Teens who don't receive enough affection and approval from their parents will be more likely to seek approval from their friends and are more susceptible to negative peer pressure.
The influence of negative peer pressure on your teen is greatly impacted by their age. Research has shown that pre-teens age 11 to 13 showed the greatest conformity to peer pressure.
Poor choices are not always obvious to parents. Teens who appear to be happy and well grounded when they are with their parents may actually be participating in dangerous activities when they are with their friends. Parents can help their teens recognize that just because everyone else is doing it doesn't make it okay.
Parents Can Help
Often, just talking about things can help a teenager see how he is being pressured unfairly or unnecessarily by the group. It can be difficult for teens to talk about these topics with their parents, but if a parent provides for open communication with their teen, it can be much easier. It is necessary to keep channels of communication open with other parents as well. This will help keep you informed of your teen's activities, even when you can't be there.
Parents need to be more involved with their teens and offer more supervised activities with their friends. Parents should hold their teen accountable for their misbehavior and encourage their teen to take responsibility for his or her actions rather than blame friends.
Good social skills are learned at home. Even though teens are influenced by peer pressure, the values and social skills they learn at home will stay with them throughout life. In order to establish these skills, parents should start teaching their children good social skills early. Don't wait until you are faced with the problem of peer pressure to start talking to your child about it. Also, parents must make clear, sensible rules for their teen and expect their teen to follow those rules consistently.
Parents have to help build and maintain healthy self-esteem in their teen so that the teen values himself as a person, trusts his abilities and makes the right choices on his own.
a time in your life when your body makes changes that cause you to develop into
an adult. These changes affect both how you look like growing taller and
developing more muscle. They also affect how you feel — one minute you want
to be treated like an adult, at other times you want to be treated like a
When brothers and sisters fight, parents may wonder if their children will ever be close. They fear that their family experience will never be warm and loving. But quarreling between siblings is natural. It may be more obvious in some families than in others, but there is always some tension between children in every family.
All children want to feel loved. There are times when a child becomes worried that the affection shown to a brother or sister means there is less for him. This is especially true when a new baby arrives. It's a major event that always affects the other children. Your older child is likely to be full of questions that he or she can't yet put into words. She may have worries such as, "Do my parents love the baby more than me?" or inner questions like, "Why did they have a new baby?" It's natural for your older child to feel uncertainty, and even jealousy or anger. Very young children haven't yet learned to talk about their feelings. So they need you to tune into their way of expressing these kinds of feelings. They need to feel your understanding.
Parents often wonder about the best time to tell their child the news. If you're pregnant and past the first trimester, your child can pick up on changes. He may overhear you talking to friends, or you may be more tired and cranky. That's a big change for him, so it would be good to prepare him. It's time to begin to talk about the new baby that is in your belly. First, just give him the news. Think of a marker in time--like a holiday he knows or a family birthday--and tell him the baby will come after that. Allow him a little time to get used to the idea and to ask questions. If after a few days he doesn't ask, then you can bring it up again. It's best to let him tell you what he wants to know. His questions may surprise you.
Don't be disappointed if your child doesn't exactly share your excitement. He has his worries that the baby will be taking his place. Just remember that this is natural. You can certainly talk to him about the fun part of having a new sister or brother. But don't push it too much. Keep in mind that your child may have mixed feelings about it and he needs to have those for awhile.
If your child says he doesn't want a new baby, you can talk about how most kids feel that way at first and that he will always be a big brother. He may be clingy and moody for a while. It may be hard for him for a while, but the positive side is that having a young sibling will give him a chance to learn about give and take with other children. The important part is that you show him that you understand and accept his feelings, then he will feel safe in talking about them with you.
When you're closer to your due date you'll want to think about preparing him for the next stages, like when you go to the hospital. Some hospitals have sibling tours, they can help. It's also important to decide who will take care of him while you're giving birth. It should be someone he trusts and feels very comfortable with. The most important thing is to tell him your plan ahead of time.
Preparing your older child in advance for the arrival of a new baby is a way of letting him share in it. This can help lessen his anxious feelings that the new baby will take his place. You might ask him if he'd like to draw a picture to send to you and the baby at the hospital. Be sure that when you call him from the hospital you let him choose whether or not he wants to talk to you. Don't let it get you down if he doesn't. He just needs time.
Some children may want to visit their mother in the hospital. Prepare for your child's visit by putting the baby in her crib before he arrives so that he can see you sitting up, ready for him. Have a special toy or treat at the hospital for him. Then gradually you and your older child can look at the baby together.
Once the baby is born, it's important to realize that your child will have mixed feelings and that accepting these new changes in his life will go slowly. Once you tune into his feelings, you can discover some reassuring ways to talk to him. Negative feelings toward the new baby can occur at anytime, right after the birth or several weeks or months later. You might notice changes in sleep patterns, waking up at night, reluctance to separate from you or go to daycare, and he may even begin to act like a baby himself (talking baby talk and reverting to crawling). You may feel as if you have to split yourself in two.
It's important for you to know that all of this is typical. Keep reminding yourself that this is a transitional time--he needs to get used to the new situation and so do you.
There are different ways to help your child through these difficult feelings. It's important to find time to be alone with your older child that is not rushed. It's hard to plan your time, but try to work towards a regular schedule so that you can fit in some time alone with him. If someone can be with the baby it will make it easier for you. Even ten or fifteen minutes twice a day without the baby would be very important for any older child. It helps to call this his special time and it's just for you two to have fun together. During this time, do what he likes to do, like singing together or making play dough. You might be able to use those times to draw him out about how he feels about having a new sister or brother. But don't push too many questions.
It's hard to schedule and plan with a new baby, but whenever you know you're going to have to give the baby your full attention, try to prepare your oldest and find some activity for her. When you know you're going to feed or bathe the baby, you can tell her, "I'm going to feed the baby in a few minutes. Let's find something for you to do while he's nursing and then we can plan what you and I will do when he's finished." We know it's not always possible, but checking in with her will help her wait until you can get back to her.
It may feel hard to be there for your oldest the way you used to be and you may feel upset and overwhelmed. Sometimes it's easy to get mad at her. It's normal to feel that. After a while you'll find your rhythm. It's okay to tell her you miss the times alone with her. But that doesn't mean you need to apologize. If you just tell her you know how she feels it will help more than you think. When you talk to her about what has changed in her life and what hasn't, you will help her to manage her feelings. It's a way for her to grow.
If your older child becomes aggressive towards the baby, you will need to respond firmly to protect them both. But while hurtful behavior must be stopped, it's helpful to acknowledge the older child's feelings of anger or jealousy. Direct punishment is not helpful. It may suppress angry feelings at the moment, but these have a way of popping up in other ways that can be destructive.
Sometimes your older child may be very loving but may go too far and get rough and poke the baby. You may be afraid to leave them alone together for fear that she may hurt him. That happens a lot. It's just another way she's showing how hard it is for her. These are times when you may try to draw her out a little. Let her tell you what bothers her about the baby. Try to be sympathetic to her feelings instead of punitive. Tell her that if she feels angry at the baby it's not O.K. to poke at him, but it is O.K. to tell you she's angry. Tell her when she gets a mad feeling towards the baby she can use words, but she mustn't hurt him. You can tell her its okay to say to the baby, "You make me mad." Usually, children are relieved if their feelings can be put into words and they know that parents recognize both their negative and positive feelings.
Listen to her. Ask her what makes her want to hurt him. If she hints that she wishes you didn't have him, don't argue her out of it. Just say you realize she wishes that, and she'll get used to him after awhile. A girl or boy, your child might also have some feelings when the baby is the opposite sex. He may feel that that makes the baby special. It can be helpful to draw out a child to talk about feelings when a new sibling is the opposite sex.
When children resort to baby talk, it's best to let them know that it's better to just say what they are talking about or tell you what they want to do. It's always important to encourage the older child when she's gentle towards the baby, when she's cooperative or when she learns ways to help you. And it's particularly important never to tease about jealous feelings.
When both children are older, rivalry is acted out in different ways. Sometimes parents forget that their children need a break from each other, just as adults do. They might get on each other’s nerves and need a parent to separate them and redirect them. Each of them need reassurance that you understand their feelings. It's really important not to make comparisons between them. Try to find a way to spend some time with each of your children separately and protect this time so each gets your full attention.
A new baby brings big changes for the whole the family. Hopefully these suggestions will help you throughout this challenging time.
children who sleepwalk do not have emotional problems, so relax.
The child may feel embarrassment, shame, guilt, anxiety and confusion when they are told about their sleepwalking behavior. It is important to handle the child's feelings about sleepwalking with care.
Medical reports show that about 18% of the population is prone to sleepwalking. It is more common in children than in adolescents and adults. Boys are more likely to sleepwalk than girls. The highest prevalence of sleepwalking was 16.7% at age 11 to 12 years of age. Sleepwalking can have a genetic tendency.
Sleepwalking that starts at an early age, generally disappears as the child gets older. If the child outgrows the sleepwalking the age that it ended was approximately 13.8 years old. If the child begins to sleepwalk at the age of 9 or older, it often lasts into adulthood.
child sleepwalks, he or she may walk or do other things and not remember them
the next day. Your child may sit up in bed and rub his or her eyes or fumble
with clothes. The child may get out of bed and walk around the room. The
child may look dazed, and his or her movements may be clumsy. When you talk
to your child, he or she usually will not answer you.
When you find your child sleepwalking, gently guide your child back to bed. Do not yell or make loud noises to wake your child up, and do not shake your child. Do not make your child feel ashamed about sleepwalking.
The majority of children who experience sleepwalking only have a mild display and frequency of the disorder. Therefore, most parents are relieved to know that most children will outgrow sleepwalking with time.
If your child sleepwalks frequently, try to stop this distressing sleep pattern. For several nights, note how many minutes pass from the time your child falls asleep to the time he starts sleepwalking. Then on the following nights awaken your child 15 minutes before the time you expect him to start sleepwalking. Remind your child at bedtime that when you do this, his job is "to wake up fast." Keep your child fully awake for 5 minutes. Continue these prompted awakenings for 7 nights in a row. If your child starts sleepwalking again, repeat this seven-night training program.
For more severe forms of sleepwalking
sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition in
which a Childs breathing stops and starts many times during sleep. These
interruptions in breathing last at least 10 seconds and sometimes as long as
two minutes, minutes. These frequent disruptions have a number of side
effects. By depriving the body of oxygen repeatedly, even for short periods,
and disturbing valuable sleep time, there is increased risk of symptoms such
as poor concentration, daytime fatigue, headaches and even organ damage.
Furthermore, there is some evidence that sleep apnea may be related to high
blood pressure (hypertension), abnormal
heart rhythms and pulmonary hypertension.
Fortunately, youth sports continue to be popular in the United States. Sports activities, therefore, present great opportunities to reach young people. Young athletes learn to make important health decisions related to tobacco use, physical activity, and good nutrition while on a sports team.
Quitting Smoking Tip:
Are you one of most smokers who want to quit? Then try following this advice.
- Don’t smoke any number or any kind of cigarette. Smoking even a few cigarettes a day can hurt your health. If you try to smoke fewer cigarettes, but do not stop completely, soon you’ll be smoking the same amount again.
Smoking "low-tar, low-nicotine" cigarettes usually does little good, either. Because nicotine is so addictive, if you switch to lower-nicotine brands you’ll likely just puff harder, longer, and more often on each cigarette. The only safe choice is to quit completely.
-Write down why you want to quit. Do you want to—
Really wanting to quit smoking is very important to how much success you will have in quitting. Smokers who live after a heart attack are the most likely to quit for good—they're very motivated. Find a reason for quitting before you have no choice.
-Know that it will take effort to quit smoking. Nicotine is habit forming. Half of the battle in quitting is knowing you need to quit. This knowledge will help you be more able to deal with the symptoms of withdrawal that can occur, such as bad moods and really wanting to smoke. There are many ways smokers quit, including using nicotine replacement products (gum and patches), but there is no easy way. Nearly all smokers have some feelings of nicotine withdrawal when they try to quit. Give yourself a month to get over these feelings. Take quitting one day at a time, even one minute at a time—whatever you need to succeed.
- For staying healthy, quitting smoking is the best step you can take. Half of all adult smokers have quit, and so can you. The continued damage to your body is staggering, just ask a x-smoker, for they have experience the damage and are very glad they quit, before it killed them.
Smoking also can
cause other respiratory diseases, such as chronic bronchitis and pneumonia.
Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to have upper and lower respiratory
tract infections, perhaps because smoking suppresses immune function.
Smokers’ lung function also declines more quickly than that of non-smokers.
What to expect
from smoking into mid-to-late adulthood:
Cancer, is not pretty!
Teens are always observing and learning. They prefer safe and comfortable social situations. Our job as parents may be to allow them (and to reassure them to allow themselves) to be observers if they wish, without thinking that they are inadequate.
Socialization has definitions other than the connection with friendship. One is the ability to get along with others. This includes all kinds of social skills: How to be polite and considerate, how to say no, how to negotiate, how to respect others even while disagreeing with them, how to speak up for oneself, and how to accept others. It involves virtually any interaction between people. This is a lot to learn and our guidance is vital to how our children will conduct their lives in the future. This is the job of every parent. The easiest and most natural way to teach these skills is through modeling. We inwardly can take this as an opportunity to improve our own social skills as we outwardly model for our kids. For example, being diplomatic or solving problems without anger are difficult tasks for most of us, but are great skills to master and to pass on to our children.
with poor social skills may wind up being the target of jokes or the victim
of bullies. He may also be an aggressor who acts as a bully to try to control
his environment. Being a bully, victim, or social misfit as a child has
lasting effects as children mature into adulthood. Children need input and
guidance from adults as they navigate through peer pressure, cliques and
childhood. Adults also need to model positive social interactions and not
tolerate bullying, demeaning, harassing, teasing or degrading behaviors from
any child with whom they come into contact.
Of note is the child who has teen Social Phobia, or Teen Social Anxiety Disorder, which typically first appears during early to mid-teens, usually preceded by a history of shyness or social inhibition. The primary signature of social phobia in teens is extreme dread of a social or performance situation, and includes a grossly exaggerated fear of embarrassment. Situations that would provoke anxiety related to social phobia are avoided, or endured with great distress. Parents usually recognize that their fear is unwarranted and to at least some extent acknowledge that it is generated in their minds, but adolescents may not be as self-aware. Symptoms may be very similar to those experienced during a Panic Attack.
Common symptoms or signs that accompany Teen Social Phobia are the following:
Should you child exhibit some of these symptoms, a visit with your family health provider could shed more light on this, and help your child better deal with it, or direct you to a specialist that can help your child..
As you think about signing kids up for sports, consider how emotionally and physically ready they are to participate. Signing up too early can end up being frustrating for everyone, and can turn kids off from sports for good.
Although there are sports programs designed for preschoolers, it's not until about age 6 or 7 that most kids develop the appropriate physical skills or the attention span needed to listen to directions and grasp the rules of the game. While preschoolers can throw and run, it usually takes some time before they can coordinate the two skills. And it usually isn't until kindergarten or first grade that kids grasp concepts like "taking turns" that are crucial to many sports.
That doesn't mean kids can't play sports when they're younger. Sports can be fun for toddlers and kindergartners, but they should be less about competition and more about having fun opportunities to be active. So even if young kids inadvertently score a goal for the other team or spend the entire game chasing butterflies, as long as they're enjoying it, that's OK.
If you do decide to sign your 5-year-old up for a team, be sure to choose a league that emphasizes fun and basic skills.
If kids show an interest in a sport, try to let them do it. You may be worried that your child will get hurt, particularly in a contact sport like football, but as long as the coach requires players to use the correct safety gear, your doctor OK's it, and your child is matched up with other kids of the same size and ability, go ahead. Even if the sport doesn't turn out to be a good fit, your child will learn much from the experience.
When choosing a sport, consider your child's unique temperament. Some kids are naturally inclined toward team sports, while others may feel more comfortable in activities where the focus is on individual efforts. There's something for everyone — from soccer and baseball for team-oriented kids, to tennis, fencing, karate, dancing, and swimming for kids who'd rather go solo.
Don't be surprised if it takes a few tries — or a few seasons — to find the sport that's right for your child. It often takes time for kids to figure out which activities they enjoy.
Some kids may just not be interested in team sports, but they can still keep fit by engaging in other activities that don't emphasize competition. No matter what they choose, kids should be physically active for at least 60 minutes a day.
Before you sign up for a season of sports, think about how practices and games are going to affect the day-to-day life of your child and the rest of the family:
However kids feel when they enroll for a season of sports, there may come a time when they want to quit. If your child comes to you with this plea, try to find the reason behind it. It may have to do with something small and fixable, like a bad-fitting uniform, or it may be a bigger issue, like how comfortable your child feels with the coach or the kids on the team. It could also be that your child just doesn't enjoy the sport.
Is it OK to let kids quit? If your child is on a team that depends on his or her participation, you may want to explain the importance of sticking it out for the season. If that's not the case, then think about what you want your child to get out of the experience, and how quitting would affect that.
When kids are overscheduled or unhappy, quitting may be the right thing. But it's still important for all kids to be physically active every day, even if they're no longer playing an organized sport.
Kids should have a physical examination before beginning any sports or fitness program. Those with certain medical conditions, vision or hearing problems, or other disorders may have difficulty playing some sports. Rarely, a doctor may find an undiagnosed condition that can affect participation.
Although you should share your interests with your kids, it's never a good idea to force them into an activity just because you once excelled in it. And once they choose a sport, be sure to head out to the field, gym, or pool to cheer them on.
These are general guidelines to keep in mind. Kids mature at their own pace and develop their unique skills at different times, so consider your child's emotional and physical maturity before you commit to a season of sports.
Participating in sports provides plenty of physical activity for fitness and also provides for interaction with others. A great tool for the rest of your Childs life.
The use of protective gear is very important for, no matter what sport you play, you need to always be sure you are using the right safety gear and are using equipment that fits the right way. Items like shin pads, helmets, mouth guards, elbow pads, knee pads, shoulder pads, etc.
Our bodies need water to work properly. Usually, you can make up for the water you lose — like when you come in from outside and have a long, cool drink of water. If you don't replace the water your body has lost, you might start feeling sick. And if you go too long without the water you need, you can become very ill and might need to go to the hospital.
Many times kids get dehydrated when they are playing hard and having fun. Have you ever gotten really sweaty and red-faced when you've been playing? This often happens when it's hot outside, but it can happen indoors, too, like if you're practicing basketball in a gym.
Kids also can get dehydrated when they're sick. If you have a stomach virus ), you might throw up or have diarrhea. On top of that, you probably don't feel very much like eating or drinking. If you have a sore throat, you might find it hard to swallow food or drink. And if you have a fever, you can lose fluids because water evaporates from your skin in an attempt to cool your body down. That's why your mom or dad tells you to drink a lot of fluids when you're sick.
Signs of Dehydration
In addition to being thirsty, here are some signs that a person might be dehydrated:
Another sign of dehydration is not peeing as much. Normally, urine should be a pale yellow color. Dark or strong-smelling pee can be a sign of dehydration.
If you can, try not to get dehydrated in the first place. If you're going to be going outside, it's a good idea to drink water before, during, and after you play, especially if it's hot. Dehydration can happen along with heat-related illnesses, such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke. In addition to drinking water, it's smart to dress in cool clothes and take breaks indoors or at least in the shade.
If you're sick, keep taking small sips of drinks and soups, even if you're not that thirsty or hungry. Eating an icepop is a great way to get fluids. How is an ice pop a liquid? Well, it's basically frozen water and flavoring. The warmth in your mouth and stomach turns it from a solid to a liquid. Other foods, such as fruits and vegetables, contain water, too.
Some cases of dehydration can be handled at home. But sometimes, that isn't enough to get a kid feeling better. A kid may need to go to the doctor or emergency department if he or she has a heat-related illness or a virus with vomiting or diarrhea that just won't quit.
At the hospital, the good news is that an intravenous line can get fluids into your body fast. An IV line is a special tube (like a very thin straw) that goes right into your veins, so the liquid goes right to where your body needs it most. It may pinch a little when the nurse is inserting it, but it often helps a person feel much better.
So do you have to drink eight glasses of water a day? No, but you do need to drink enough to satisfy your thirst, and maybe a little extra if you're sick or if you're going to be exercising. The best drink is water, of course, but milk is another great drink for kids. Juice is OK, but choose it less often than water and milk. Sports drinks are fine once in a while, but water should be considered the drink of champions.
Limit soda and other sugary drinks, such as fruit punches, lemonades, and iced teas. These drinks contain a lot of sugar that your body doesn't need. Some of them also contain caffeine, which is a diuretic This means that caffeinated drinks cause you to urinate (pee) more often than normal. In other words, they tell your body to get rid of fluids. And as you now know, that's the opposite of what you need to do if you're dehydrated!
Protective gear is anything you wear that helps keep you from getting hurt. The gear you wear depends on the sport you play. Helmets are the most common protective gear. They protect your all-important head while you're playing football, hockey, baseball, softball, biking, skateboarding, and in-line skating, just to name a few!
Make sure you're wearing the right helmet for your sport. For instance, don't wear your baseball batting helmet when you're playing football! Your helmet should fit snugly but comfortably, and if it has a strap - like a bike helmet does - you need to fasten it. Otherwise, it will fall off when you need it most.
Other sports require eye protection, mouth guards, pads, wrist, elbow, and knee guards, and a protective cup (for boys only). And don't forget your feet. Cleats are worn in football, baseball, softball, and soccer. These shoes have special rubber or plastic points on the soles to help your feet grip the ground when you run around.
Talk with your parents or your coach to know what gear you need. Then wear that gear whenever you're practicing or playing.
It's not a good idea to just bolt on to the field and start playing. You shouldn't even start stretching until you're a little warmed up. So take a light jog to get loosened up and ready to play.
Doing some stretching also can get you prepared to hit the field. By warming up, you get yourself ready to play. Warming up your muscles and practicing a sport help keep you safe, too. Warm-ups that last 15 to 30 minutes and include slow, gradual stretching help lengthen your muscles and increase your blood flow and muscle temperature. That way, your muscles are ready to go and are much less likely to get hurt.
When players know the rules of the game - what's legal and what's not - fewer injuries happen. You and the other players know what to expect from each other. For instance, you know that in soccer you can't come from behind, crash into a player's legs, and steal the ball. It's legal - and safer - to go after the ball rather than the player.
With sports that use plays, it helps to understand the plays and what your role is in each one. Being where you're supposed to be can help you stay out of harm's way, too.
Some rules don't have anything to do with scoring points or penalties. Some rules are just about protecting other people and being courteous. For instance, in baseball or softball, the batter can't fling the bat after hitting the ball and heading for first base. He or she must drop it so that it doesn't hit anyone. Likewise, a diver would make sure that the pool was clear before diving in. Otherwise, he or she might land on someone else.
One way you can watch out for others is to communicate on the field. For instance, a baseball player in the outfield might yell "I got it" to avoid a collision with another outfielder. Listening to your coach during a game also can help keep you safe. It's also good to just be courteous, like telling someone his or her shoe is untied. Check your shoes, too!
This is a really important one. If you love sports, it's tempting to get right back in the game, even after an injury. But playing when you're hurt - or before an injury has had a chance to fully heal - is a bad idea. It can lead to an even worse injury, one that might sideline you for a long time. Be honest with parents and coaches if you've been hurt. See a doctor for your injuries, when necessary, and follow his or her advice about how and when to return to practice and play.
DO NOT DRINK AND SWIM.
Use a Life Vest
Do you know CPR &
Take CPR classes and First Aid, whenever you have the opportunity. Knowing a few simple and logical steps may save a life.
-Swim only in marked
swimming areas, preferably with a lifeguard.
Wait for your driver to come to a complete stop and shut off the motor before approaching the vehicle.
- Always with a Buddy
Never surf, swim, dive, raft, fish, canoe, kayak, or jet ski alone. If a person is injured during their sport, having a buddy nearby can save a life. Find a friend who wants to play in the water as well.
those kids approximately 8 and 12 when they are not yet a teen but no longer
a little kid. Often they are overlooked by their parents and experts, alike
because they happen to fall between two very busy and exciting social stages
of life little kids and teen years. As tweens transition from
childhood dependence to adult independence, their social interactions
demonstrate a switch in emphasis: parents become less important than peers in
decision-making processes. This is considered tumultuous period
for children. It is a time of extremes from the lowest to the highest, with
regard to the changing of their hormones and their not really understanding
their emotions, as well as their expectations and assumption of
responsibilities. These years also mark two important
transitions which affect tweens' motivation, behavior and self-perception:
the move from the elementary grades to middle school, and then to high school
child travels the road between the tweens often predicts how he handles
himself academically and emotionally in the future. The relationship you
encourage now will lend you to a more open and trusted relationship in the
future, as well. Tween parenting is very important!<>Being the Parent
of a Tween:
has a place in today's society and will most likely continue.
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