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Sports & Outdoors

 

[Archery] [Baseball] [Basketball] [Boating] [Camping] [Croquet] [Cycling] [Equestrian] [Fishing] [Flying] [Football] [Golf] [Gymnastics] [Hiking] [Hockey] [Hunting] [Ice Skating] [Lacrosse] [Mountain Biking] [Mountain Climbing] [Motorcycling]  [Off-Road] [Rafting] [Rowing] [Roller Skating] [Sailing] [Skate Boarding][Skiing] [Snowboarding] [Snowmobiling] [Swimming] [Tennis] [Track & Field] [Volleyball] [Waterskiing] 

 

QT:  The name "athletics" is derived from the Greek word "athlos", meaning "contest".


Archery: Bow and Arrow

Archery has historically been used in hunting and combat and has become a precision sport.

Arrow rest - Where the arrow rests during draw. These may be simple fixed rests or may be spring-loaded or magnetic flip rests.

Back (of bow) - The face of the bow on the opposite side to the string

Belly (of bow) - The face of the bow on the same side as the string

Bow sight - An aiming aid attached to the riser

Sling - A strap attached to the bow handle, wrist or fingers to stop the bow falling from the hand

Brace height - The distance between the deepest part of the grip and the string

Grip - The part of the bow held by the bow hand

Limbs - The upper and lower working parts of the bow, which come in a variety of different poundage’s

Knocking point - The place on the bowstring where the nock (end) of an arrow is fitted

Riser - The rigid centre section of a bow to which the limbs are attached

String - The cord that attaches to both limb tips and transforms stored energy from the limbs into kinetic energy in the arrow

Tab (Thumb ring) - Is a protection for the digits that draw the string. Normally this is made of leather.

Tiller - The difference between the limb-string distances measured where the limbs are attached to the riser. Usually the upper distance is slightly more than the bottom one, resulting in a positive tiller. Reflects the power-balance between both limbs

Compound Bow

The limbs of a compound bow are usually much stiffer than those of a recurve bow or longbow. This limb stiffness makes the compound bow more energy efficient than other bows, but the limbs are too stiff to be drawn comfortably with a string attached directly to them. The compound bow has the string attached to the pulleys (cams), one or both of which has one or more cables attached to the opposite limb. When the string is drawn back, the string causes the pulleys to turn. This causes the pulleys to pull the cables, which in turn causes the limbs to bend and thus store energy. The compound bow is little-affected by changes of temperature and humidity and gives superior accuracy, velocity, and distance in comparison to other bows

 

Crossbow

touch_img.jpgTalisman Crossbow

 

With a crossbow, archers could release a draw force far in excess of what they could have handled with a bow. Moreover, crossbows could be kept cocked and ready to shoot for some time with little effort, allowing crossbowmen to aim better. The disadvantage is the greater weight and clumsiness compared to a bow, as well as the slower rate of fire and the lower efficiency of the acceleration system.

Crossbows have a much smaller draw length than bows. This means that for the same energy to be imparted to the arrow (or bolt) the crossbow has to have a much higher draw weight.

The bow (called the "prod" or "lath" on a crossbow) of early crossbows was made of a single piece of wood, usually ash or yew. Composite bows are made from layers of different material—often wood, horn and sinew—glued together and bound. The crossbow prod is very short compared to ordinary bows, resulting in a short draw length. This leads to a higher draw weight in order to store the same amount of energy. Furthermore the thick prods are a bit less efficient at releasing energy, but more energy can be stored by a crossbow.

Deflex bow

A deflex bow is a bow that has arms curved or curled at the base, to turn towards the archer. This bow form reduces the strain on the limbs and also the energy stored by the weapon. Most modern recurve bows are built with some degree of deflex. It has been used occasionally in traditional bows, for example to make a bow that looks like a traditional hornbow without using any actual horn.

Flatbow

A flatbow is a bow with non-recurved, flat, relatively wide limbs that are approximately rectangular in cross-section. Because the limbs are relatively wide, flatbows will usually narrow and become deeper at the handle, with a rounded, non-bending, handle for easier grip. This design differs from that of a longbow, which has rounded limbs that are circular or D shaped in cross-section, and is usually widest at the handle. Traditional flatbows are usually wooden selfbows

Long Bow

Traditional longbows are self bows (made from a single piece of wood), It is a type of bow that is tall (roughly equal to the height of a person who uses it), is not significantly recurved has relatively narrow limbs, that are circular or D-shaped in cross section. Because the longbow can be made from a single piece of wood, it can be crafted relatively easily and quickly.

Recurve bow

The recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is unstrung. the difference between recurve and other bows is that the string touches sections of the limbs of recurve bows when the bow is strung. Also, a recurve bow stores more energy than an equivalent straight-limbed bow.

Reflex bow

A reflex bow has curved or curled arms that turn away from the archer throughout the length. When unstrung, the entire length of the bow curves forward from the belly (that is, away from the archer), resembling a ‘C’; this is the difference from a reflex bow from a recurve bow.

Straight bow

Traditional bows are made approximately straight in side-view profile. They are generally referred to as straight, despite the minor curves of natural.


Baseball:                                                               sports_com.gif (4353 bytes)

Baseball's home plate is 17 inches wide.

Height of the Pitcher’s Mound

According to MLB rules (Rule 1.04), the height of a mound at its peak at the rubber (pitcher's plate) is 10 inches above the level of home plate. This standard height came into being in 1969. Prior to that there was no standard height for a mound and the height could vary. The first mention of a mound in baseball rules was in 1903. The mound allows pitchers to throw the ball faster because they are striding downhill as they throw.

The song ‘Take Me Out to the Ball Game’ was written by Jack Norworth in 1908. The music was written by Albert Von Tilzer.

The distance between the pitcher's rubber and home plate in baseball is 60 feet, 6 inches.

Major League Baseball MLB  (30 teams)

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National League Teams:

Arizona Diamondbacks

Atlanta Braves

Chicago Cubs

Cincinnati Reds

Colorado Rockies

Florida Marlines

Houston Astros

Los Angeles Dodgers

Milwaukee Brewers

New York Mets

Philadelphia Phillies

Pittsburgh Pirates

San Diego Padres

San Francisco Giants

St. Louis Cardinals

Washington Nationals


American League Teams:

Baltimore Orioles

Boston Red Sox

Chicago White Sox

Cleveland Indians

Detroit Tigers

Kansas City Royals

Los Angeles Angels

Minnesota Twins

New York Yankees

Oakland Athletics

Seattle Mariners

Tampa Bay Rays

Texas Rangers

Toronto Bluejays

 

Minor League Teams:

 

http://web.minorleaguebaseball.com/index.jsp
 

Standings


Basketball:

The game was the invention of Dr. James Naismith in 1891. He set out to invent a game to occupy students between the football and baseball seasons. The first official game was played in a YMCA gymnasium on January 20, 1892 with nine players. Initially for the basket, a peach basket was utilized, with no hole in the bottom.

The hoop is 10 feet (3.048 m) high

 Regulations on the size a basketball are different if women are playing; the official basketball size is 28.5" in circumference (size 6) and a weight of 20 oz. For men, the official ball is 29.5" in circumference (size 7) and weighs 22 oz.

NBA specifies that the court be 94 by 50 feet (29 by 15 m). A regulation basketball court in international games is 28 by 15 meters (approx. 92 by 49 ft)

NBA: National Basketball Association    (32 teams) Founded 1946

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Atlantic:

Boston Celtics

New Jersey Nets

New York Knicks

Philadelphia 76ers

Toronto Raptors

Southwest:

Dallas Mavericks

Houston Rockets

Memphis Grizzles

New Orleans Hornets

San Antonio Spurs

Central:

Chicago Bills

Cleveland Cavaliers

Detroit Pistons

Indiana Pacers

Milwaukee Bucks

 

Northwest:

Denver Nuggets

Minnesota Timberwolves

Portland Trail Blazers

Oklahoma City Thunder

Utah Jazz

Southeast:

Atlantic Hawks

Charlotte Bobcats

Miami Heat

Orlando Magic

Washington Wizards

 

Pacific:

Golden State Warriors

Los Angeles Clippers

Los Angeles Lakers

Phoenix Suns

Sacramento Kings

 

WNBA: Women’s National Basketball Association

WNBA.com Home

Women's basketball began in 1892 at Smith College when Senda Berenson, a physical education teacher, modified Naismith's rules for women. The first women’s collegiate basketball game was played on March 21, 1893

TEAMS

Atlanta Dream

Chicago Sky

Connecticut Sun

Detroit Shock

Indiana Fever

Los Angeles Sparks

Minnesota Lynx

New York Liberty

Phoenix Mercury

Sacramento Monarchs

San Antonio Silverstars

Seattle Storm

Washington Mystics

WNBA Team Standings

 

ABA: American Basketball Association Conferences

ABA Logo no background.jpg 

 

Southeast:

Atlanta Vision
Atlanta, Georgia

Bahama All Pro Show
Miami, Florida

Kansas City Spartans
Kansas City, Missouri

Kentucky Bison’s
Owensboro, Kentucky

Kentucky Travelers
Louisville, Kentucky

Knoxville Thunderbolts
Knoxville, Tennessee

Nashville  Broncos’
Nashville, Tennessee

 

Southwest:

Arizona Rhinos
Prescott Valley, Arizona

Houston Takers
Houston, Texas

Las Vegas Aces
Las Vegas, Nevada

Mississippi Blues
Jackson, Mississippi

Phoenix Fury
Phoenix, Arizona

Southeast Texas Mustangs
Beaumont, Texas

Texas City Rangers
Texas City, Texas

Texas Fuel
San Antonio, Texas

West Texas Whirlwinds
Midland, Texas

 

Northwest

Beijing Aoshen Olympian
Stockton, California

Inland Empire 5 LINX
Inland, California

Los Angeles Push
Los Angeles, California

Los Angeles Slam
Los Angeles, California

Maywood Buzz
Maywood, California

Modesto Bearcats
Modesto, California

Riverside Rage
Riverside, California

Salt Lake City Saints
Salt Lake City, Utah

San Francisco Rumble
San Francisco, California

Washington Raptors
Castle Rock, Washington

 

Northeast:

Aurora Force
Aurora, Illinois

Chicago Steam
Chicago, Illinois

Cleveland Rockers
Cleveland, Ohio

Detroit Hoops
Detroit, Michigan

Jersey Express
Madison, New Jersey

West Virginia Wild
South Charleston, West Virginia

West Virginia Blazers
Bluefield, West Virginia

 


Croquet:

Croquet Association  (UK. was formed in 1896)

There are several variations of croquet currently played, differing in the scoring systems, order of shots, and layout (particularly in social games where play must be adapted to smaller-than-standard playing courts). Two forms of the game, Association Croquet and Golf Croquet, have rules that are agreed internationally and are played in many countries around the world. The United States has its own set of rules for domestic games. More unusual variations of the game include Mondo Croquet, extreme Croquet, and Bicycle Croquet..

In Golf Croquet each player takes turns trying to hit a ball through the same hoop, the winner being the player who manages to hit the ball through the most hoops first. Golf Croquet has the advantage of being easier to learn and play, but its critics claim that the lack of croquet strokes in the game means that it is less intellectually demanding.

The "American rules" version of croquet—another six-wicket-layout game—is the dominant version of the game in the United States and is also widely played in Canada and is governed by the United States Croquet Association.


American Football:

The dimensions of a regulation football field are: 360 feet long and 160 feet wide.

 *"The Granddaddy of Them All" The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl Stadium in Pasadena, California for 95 years. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is then played on the following Monday. *The Rose Bowl is nicknamed because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902. The opposing teams were Michigan vs. Stanford. Michigan beat Sanford 49-0.

NFL:  National Football League (32 Teams)

NFL Logo

American Conference:

Buffalo Bills, Miami Dolphins, New England Patriots, New York Jets, Baltimore Ravens, Cincinnati Bengals, Cleveland Browns, Pittsburg Steelers, Houston Texans, Indianapolis Colts, Jacksonville Jaguars, Tennessee Titans, Denver Broncos, Kansas City Chiefs, Oakland Raiders, San Diego Chargers.

National Conference:

Atlanta Falcons, New York Giants, Dallas Cowboys, Chicago Bears, Detroit Lions, Philadelphia Eagles, Washington Redskins, Green Bay Packers, Minnesota Vikings, Carolina Panthers, New Orleans Saints, San Francisco 49ers, Seattle Seahawks, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Arizona Cardinals, St. Louis Rams.

The Pacific 10 conference (Pac-10 for short) is the same for all NCAA sports.

Arizona State -------- Sun Devils (mascot:  Sparky)

U of Arizona ----------Wildcats (motto: "Bear Down")

U of Cal-----------------Golden Bears 

U of Oregon -----------Ducks (mascot: Donald is compliments of Walt Disney Productions)

Stanford ----------------Cardinal (mascot:  a tree)

UCLA--------------------Bruins (mascot: Joe & Josephine)

USC ---------------------Trojans (mascot: Traveler VII)

UW -----------------------Huskies (mascot: Dawg)

WA State----------------Cougars (mascot:  Butch the Cougar)

Oregon State----------- Beavers   (mascots:  Bennie & Bernice Beaver “motto:  "Dam Right, I'm a Beaver!")


Hockey:

NHL: National Hockey League

The league was formed in 1917 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada from a predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association (NHA), founded in 1909. It started with four teams, and through a series of expansions, contractions and relocations, the league is now composed of 30 teams, 24 of which are based in the United States and six in Canada.

Each National Hockey League regulation game is an ice hockey game played between two teams and is 60 minutes long. The game is composed of three 20-minute periods with an intermission of either 15½ or 17 minutes.

Atlantic

New Jersey Devils

New York Islanders

New York Rangers

Philadelphia Flyers

Pittsburg Penguins

Northeast

Boston Bruins

Buffalo Sabres

Montreal Canadiens

Ottawa Senators

Toronto Maple Leafs

Southwest

Atlanta Thrashers

Carolina Hurricanes

Florida Panthers

Tampa Bay Lightning

Washington Capitals

Central

Chicago Blackhawks

Columbus Blue Jackets

Detroit Red Wings

Nashville Predators

St. Louis Blues

Northwest

Calgary Flames

Colorado Avalanche

Edmonton Oilers

Minnesota Wild

Vancouver Canucks

Pacific

Anaheim Ducks

Dallas Stars

Los Angeles Kings

Phoenix Coyotes

San Jose Sharks

 

NHL Trophy Awards

Stanley Cup

Championship Team

Presidents Trophy

Most Points

Art Ross Trophy

Goals and Assist

Maurice ‘Rocket’ Richard Trophy

Goal Scoring Leader

William M. Jennings Trophy

Goal keeper/fewest goals against their team

Hart Memorial Trophy

Most Valuable Player

Vezina Trophy

Best Goalkeeper

James Norris Memorial Trophy

Top Defenseman

Calder Memorial Trophy

Top Rookie

Lady Byng Memorial Trophy

Skill and Sportsmanship

 


Boating:       NSBC_logo                                                               wearit-logo2b 

 It is the parent’s responsibility to keep their children safe when on the water and insisting on wearing life jackets is one of the best ways to do that.

“Just like you make your kids wear bike helmets, make them wear life jackets.”

Many adults believe themselves capable of diving into the water to rescue a child who falls overboard.  This is a dangerous misconception.  Adults may not notice a child falling overboard right away.  Children who fall in may not surface immediately.  It can be difficult to locate a child in the water—especially when the vessel is in motion.

Life jackets could prevent approximately two-thirds of all boating-related drownings of children ages 14 and under.  In fact, in most states, children under 13 must wear life jackets.  It’s the law.

According to the National SAFE KIDS Campaign, drowning remains second only to motor vehicle accidents as the leading cause of unintentional injury-related death among children ages 1 to 14.   Furthermore, children are much more likely to practice safe habits when they experience similar behavior by parents and caregivers.  “We have done research that indicates children whose parents wear life jackets around water are more likely to wear one themselves,” says Jen Medearis Costello, program manager at the National SAFE KIDS Campaign.  “Therefore we recommend that parents not only actively supervise their children around water, but also demonstrate safe behavior—including wearing life jackets.”

The Coast Guard and National SAFE KIDS Campaign strongly recommend adults always wear life jackets as well – not only to keep themselves safe, but to demonstrate safe behavior for their children.

The U.S. Coast Guard is asking all boat owners and operators to help reduce fatalities, injuries, property damage, and healthcare costs related to recreational boating accidents by taking personal responsibility for their own safety and the safety of their passengers. Essential steps include always wearing a life jacket and requiring passengers to do the same; never boating under the influence; completing a boating safety course; and getting a free vessel safety check annually from local U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary or United States Power Squadrons® vessel examiners. The U.S. Coast Guard reminds all boaters, "You're in Command. Boat Responsibly!”

Power Boats 

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Types: (Some)

Bow Riders- These family boats are the most popular in the runabout/spotboat category

Catamarans- provide the sailor with a wide, airy main cabin along with lots of deck space for sunning (Twin-hulled sailing and many times both sail and engine-powered boat, also Catamarans and Trimarans the same terminology) “the power catamaran is usually devoid of any sailing apparatus”

Catamarans, and multihulls in general, are normally faster than single-hull boats for three reasons:

·         Catamarans are lighter due to the fact there is no keel counterweight;

·         Catamarans have a wider beam (the distance from one side of the boat to the other), which makes them more stable and therefore able to carry more sail area per unit of length than an equivalent monohull; and

·         The greater stability means that the sail is more likely to stay upright in a gust, drawing more power than a monohull's sail which is more likely to heel (lean) over.

Center Console- Built to take rough offshore waters in pursuit of ocean fish

Closed Bow Runabouts- Closed Bow Runabouts are fast and ideal for smaller crews

Cuddy Cabins- These are great day cruisers and overnighters for small groups and family boating. Ideal for skiing, tubing and wakeboarding

Deck Boats- Deck boats have wide deck to carry 8 to 12 or more passengers

Dinghy- Usually less than 10 feet in length, easy to carry on a car top or light enough to carry on board a cruiser. Great for use off the beach, or around the harbor

Fish & Ski- This craft allows boaters to enjoy the two most popular on-water activities; fishing and skiing. This family fishing and recreational boat has enough power to pull one or two skiers.

Flat Boats- They can float and run in water less than two feet deep and are ideal for fishing with two to three people on board.

House Boats- Houseboats are designed to offer home living on the water complete with spacious floor plans and modern amenities for entertaining, dining and sleeping

Inboard Cruisers- Inboard cruisers tend to exceed 30-feet or longer and are great for sleeping, cooking and plumbing facilities

Ski Boats- Inboard ski boats accelerate rapidly, pulling up your skier quickly and also provide for quick recovering of a downed skier easily. These boats are great for skiing, racing and other waters ports activities.

Inflatable’s- These boats are suitable for saltwater and freshwater fishing, water sports and more.

Jet Boats- Like bowriders and deckboats, they come with comfortable seating and sunning areas, plus a speedy and exciting ride. They are distinguished from runabouts by their propulsion system, which is enclosed.

Pontoon Boats- Pontoon boats provide families with youngsters aboard a safe and secure place to enjoy the ride or move about when at anchor, thanks to wide decks and "like pen" side rails and gates.

Sailboats- Sailboats differ from other types of boats in that they are propelled partly or entirely by wind; they use sails to transform the power of the wind into power that moves the boat through the water. The term sailboat covers a wide variety of sailing craft, each with its own characteristics and styles. In general, sailboats are distinguished by size, hull configuration, keel type, number of sails, use and purpose.

Sedan (W/Bridge) - Sedan Bridge has a flying bridge for more deck space and comes with a swim platform. They have ample living accommodations including an electrical generator, AC and plumbing

Sport Fishing- Great for pursuing large fish. Often equipped with sleeping berths, a galley for cooking and plumbing for convenience, they have the capacity to stay on the water for days.

Stern Drive Cruiser- Used for freshwater fishing, water sports, cruising and much more, these boats have all the comforts expected from recreational cruising boats including sleeping, cooking and plumbing equipment

Trawlers- Facilities for sleeping, cooking and plumbing provide boating fun for weekends on the water with family and friends. They can handle big rivers, lakes and oceans on moderate days

Yachts- (Large Luxury Vessels) Ideal for ocean cruising or navigating large rivers, Lakes or the Oceans, as well as entertaining at the dock. Two engines, usually fueled with diesel and a generator for electricity make them self-sufficient in terms of living accommodations

Walkaround- These boats may be the ultimate family fishing boats and are most popular in coastal waters.

Ice-boats

Modern iceboats designs are generally supported by three skate blades called "runners" supporting a triangular or cross-shaped frame with the steering runner in front. Runners are made of iron or steel and sharpened to a fine edge, most often cut to an angled edge of 90 degrees, which holds onto the ice, preventing slippage sideways from the lateral force of the wind developed by the sails. Iceboating's popularity is primarily limited to the northern continental United States and Europe, as few places elsewhere have ice thick enough to safely use the vessels for an extended duration ( land sailing, utilizes a configuration with an iceboat-like fuselage or frame equipped with wheels instead of runners. Iceboats commonly used for racing are usually only for one person)

Sailing

Types: Sloop*/Bermuda Sloop, Cutter, Catboat, Ketch, Schooner, Yawl, Dinghy, Catamarans, Trimarans.

A traditional modern yacht is technically called a "Bermuda sloop" (sometimes a "Bermudan sloop"). A sloop is any boat that has a single mast and a headsail (generally a jib) in addition to the mainsail. The Bermuda designation refers to the fact that the sail, which has its forward edge (the "luff") against the mast (the main sail), is a sail roughly triangular in shape. Additionally, Bermuda sloops only have a single sail behind the mast

If a boat has two masts, it may be a schooner, a ketch, or a yawl, if it is rigged fore-and-aft on all masts. A schooner may have any number of masts provided the second from the front is the tallest (called the "main mast"). In both a ketch and a yawl, the foremost mast is tallest, and thus the main mast, while the rear mast is shorter, and called the mizzen mast.

Sailing boats with one hull are "monohulls", those with two are "catamarans", those with three are "trimarans.  A boat is turned by a rudder, which itself is controlled by a tiller or a wheel, while at the same time adjusting the sheeting angle of the sails. Smaller sailing boats often have a stabilizing, raiseable, underwater fin called a centerboard (or daggerboard,), these are usually dinghies; larger sailing boats have a fixed (or sometimes canting) keel.

* Other types of sloops are gaff-rigged sloops and lateen sloops. Gaff-rigged sloops have quadrilateral mainsails with a gaff (a small boom) at their upper edge (the "head" of the sail). Gaff-rigged vessels may also have another sail, called a topsail, above the gaff. Lateen sloops have triangular sails with the upper edge attached to a gaff, and the lower edge attached to the boom, and the boom and gaff are attached to each other via some type of hinge.

Kite Surfing-Kite Boarding

This is a surface water sport that uses wind power to pull a rider through the water on a small surfboard or a kiteboard (similar to a wakeboard). Generally kiteboarding refers to a style of riding known as freestyle or wake-style, whereas kitesurfing is more "wave-riding" oriented. These two styles usually require different boards and specific performance kites.

Kitesurfers change kite size and/or line length from the harness to the kite depending on wind strength -- stronger winds call for a smaller kite to prevent overpower situations. It is important to avoid using too large a kite, particularly when you are new to the sport.

Kites come in different aspect ratios (AR). The AR refers to how much of the kite is exposed to the wind and what angle the wind takes as it passes through the kite. Newer kites also provide a "depower" option to reduce the power in the kite. By using depower, the kite's angle of attack to the wind is reduced, thereby catching less wind in the kite and reducing the power or pull.

The more optimal these factors, the lower wind speed you will be able to perform in. A 170 lb. rider will need about 8 to 10 knots sustained wind and a larger kite (16 m² or bigger). In 12 - 15 knots you can have a lot of fun by doing low jumps and freestyle maneuvers. 16 - 20 knots on a 16 square meter kite will allow you jumping high, while 20 to 24 knots might allow you to fly with the birds on a 12 square meter kite. An experienced rider generally carries a 'quiver' of different sized kites appropriate for different wind ranges

Parasailing, also known as Parascending

Most popular paragliding regions have a number of schools, generally registered with and/or organized by national associations. Certification systems vary widely between countries, though around 10 days instruction to basic certification is standard.

There are several key components to a paragliding pilot certification instruction program. Initial training for beginning pilots usually begins with some amount of ground school to discuss the basics, including elementary theories of flight as well as basic structure and operation of the paraglider.

Students then learn how to control the glider on the ground, practicing take-offs and controlling the wing 'overhead'. Low, gentle hills are next where students get their first short flights, flying at very low altitudes, to get used to the handling of the wing over varied terrain. Special winches can be used to tow the glider to low altitude in areas that have no hills readily available.

As their skills progress, students move on to steeper/higher hills (or higher winch tows), making longer flights, and learning to turn the glider, control the glider's speed, then moving on to 360° turns, spot landings, ‘big ears’ (used to increase the rate of descent for the paraglider), and other more advanced techniques. Training instructions are often provided to the student via radio, particularly during the first flights.

A third key component to a complete paragliding instructional program provides substantial background in the key areas of meteorology, aviation law, and general flight area etiquette.

 

Waterskiing

newlogo_iwsf_sm          

Safety Tips for Water-Skiers

Don't take unnecessary risks while water-skiing. The following tips will help you safely enjoy this thrilling sport:

 

 

 

A close-up of a left hand palm facing forward and thumb up, indicating turn left.
Turn Left

A close-up of a right hand palm facing forward with thumb up, indicating turn right.
Turn Right

Image of man in life jacket with hands held above head with elbows bent, one hand clasping the other arm around the wrist, indicating "OK."
OK

A close-up of a hand with index finger touching thumb and forming a circle, other fingers extended upward, indicating "Speed OK."
Speed OK

Image of a man in life jacket with his right arm bent at a 45-degree angle, with the hand above the head, palm down, indicating "Back to Dock."
Back to Dock

A close-up of a hand with all fingers pointing up, palm facing outward, indicating "Stop."
Stop

A close-up of a fist with thumb pointing downward, indicating "Slower."
Slower

A close-up of a fist with thumb pointing upward, indicating "Faster."
Faster

Image of a man in a life jacket with his lower half submerged in water, holding one water-ski above his head, parallel to the surface of the water, indicating "Retrieval."
Retrieval

Windsurfing/Sailboarding

Windsurfing can be enjoyed in a variety of conditions, but the windsurfer should be aware of the dangers that may occur. Learn to match your windsurfing skills with weather and water conditions. Cautious windsurfers always check wind and weather forecasts before getting under way. While protected waters are ideal for beginners, unexpected high winds can make these waters hazardous. Sailors planning an outing on the ocean or any large body of water should be aware of wind direction. Because the sailor may be easily carried away by an offshore wind, sail with the onshore breeze for safety. The advice of a knowledgeable local windsurfer or sailboard instructor could prove most helpful in understanding local windsurfing conditions.

Daggerboard 
Easing Out 
Furl 
Jibing 

Head Up 
Leeward 
Luffing 
Mast Leash 
Port Tack 
Starboard Tack 
Tacking 

Windward 

A vertically moving foil-shaped blade that is extended from the bottom of the board to help prevent the board from slipping sideways. 
Letting the sail out (done with the back hand). 
To roll and store the sail. 
(While sailing downwind) turning the board onto a new tack by bringing
the stern across the wind. 
To turn the board toward the wind. 
Downwind; the "lee side" of the board is the side away the wind. 
When the sail is flapping loosely. 
Connects the mast to the board. 
On a course where the wind is coming over the left side of the board. 
On a course where the wind is coming over the right side of the board.
(While sailing upwind) turning the board onto a new course by bringing 
the bow across the wind. 
Upwind; toward the wind. Opposite of leeward. 

 


Camping:

Always be on the lookout for people on the road in campgrounds. Typically campgrounds accommodate many families with kids, and campers frequently walk and bike along campground roads. Do drive slowly and observe the campground speed limit, which is usually 15 MPH.

Be a good camping neighbor by making it a habit of regularly collecting any trash around your campsite and disposing of it appropriately. Always pack a box of  plastic garbage bags, they come in quite handy for this. Don't burn trash in the campfire either. When you depart from your camping site, leave it clean.


Always travel with a medical First Aid Kit.

Camp site necessities: mandatory items, to mention just a few.

-       Air mattress - and don't forget the air pump!

-       Air pump – Many models run on four "D" batteries and will either inflate or deflate your mattress in a few minutes.

-       Aluminum Foil - Use this for making packet meals. 

-       Batteries - Be sure you have backup batteries of every size that you use, and that they're fresh.

-       Camp Knife - a Swiss Army Knife is worth its weight in gold, plus a kitchen knife for cooking.

-       Camp Stool - This is a little folding stool with a canvas seat that's easy to pick up and move around.

-       Can Opener - Indispensible item, get one with a good-sized crank. ( it might be wise to purchase pop-type cans instead of those requiring a can opener)

-       Canopy - This is a large tarp that's erected over the picnic table for shelter from sun and rain. Make certain that  it comes with poles for each corner and one for the center, and   the corners are staked down to keep it stable in the wind.

-       Chairs - Take a few comfortable lawn chairs with you relaxing around the campsite.

-       Cleaning sponge - Buy one that is a sponge on one side and a scrubber on the other to make washing those dishes easier.

-       Clothesline - Tie a piece of thin rope between a couple of trees, and drape your wet towels and swimsuits over it for drying.

-       Flashlight - Have one for each camper. Make sure the batteries are fresh before you leave, and carry extras. It gets mighty dark at night.

-       Ice Chest – There are various sizes. Igloo and Coleman make good ones, but there are others. Freeze meat before packing to make it last longer, and make sure the clasp is secure

-       Propane lantern

-       Proper clothing attire, AN ABSOLUTE MUST!

-       Sleeping bag(s)

-       Tent or shelter (preferably a tent)

-       Water

-       And More

 

Camping Check list: Printable (Of course, you are not going to use all of these, condense it to meet your individual needs)

US Campgrounds

There are in excess of 2,500 recreation areas at 450+ lakes managed by Army Corp of Engineering, plus those operated by the US Forest Service, so there are numerous choices available.

 Recreation.gov website logo and banner - spring flowers

 

Camping USA

 

 Over 5,000 US State, National and Forest and local Campgrounds (Locations shown on US map, for your convenience). Great Source!

Public Campground Map and Directory

 

Cycling:

Cycling is generally broken into three large categories: off-road, on-road, and BMX or stunt riding.

The most important and basic rule of bicycle safety is to always wear a helmet (I will go into more detailed helmet rules later). You don't need a top of the line helmet, but make sure that it is certified

Mountain Biking:

Mountain bikes are heavy (4 to 5 lbs. for a frame) and designed to take abuse. Most mountain bikes use 26 inch (559 mm) bicycle wheels with wide, knobby tires for extra traction and shock absorption. In the current century, front wheel suspension has become the norm and full front and rear suspension has become increasingly common. Some mountain bikes are also fitted with bar ends on the handlebars to give extra leverage for hill-climbing.

 

Major categories of Mountain Biking:

 

-Bike trials:  Slow negotiation of man-made and natural obstacles where setting a foot down constitutes a penalty.

 

-Downhill DH) is, in the most general sense, riding mountain bikes downhill. The rider usually travels to the point of descent by other means than cycling, such as a ski lift or automobile, as the weight of the downhill mountain bike often precludes any serious climbing. While cross country riding inevitably has a downhill component, Downhill (or DH for short) usually refers to racing-oriented downhill riding. Downhill-specific bikes are universally equipped with front and rear suspension, large disc brakes, and use heavier frame tubing than other mountain bikes. Because of their extremely steep terrain (often located in summer at ski resorts), downhill courses are one of the most extreme and dangerous venues for mountain biking. They include large jumps (up to and including 12 meters (40 feet)), drops of 3+ meters (10+ feet), and are generally rough and steep top to bottom. To negotiate these obstacles at race speed, racers must possess a unique combination of total body strength, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, and mental control. Minimum body protection in a true downhill setting is knee pads and a full face helmet with goggles, although riders and racers commonly sport full body suits to protect themselves. Downhill bikes now weigh around 16-20 kilos (35-45 lbs), while professional downhill mountain bikes can weigh as little as 15 kilos (33 lbs), fully equipped with custom carbon fiber parts, air suspension, tubeless tires and more. Downhill frames get anywhere from 170-250 millimeters (7 to 10 inches) of travel and are usually mounted with an 200 millimeter (8 inch) travel dual-crown fork.

 

-All-mountain (AM) bike category typically provides 125-180 millimeters (5-7 inches) of rear and front suspension travel and stronger components then XC models, while still providing overall weight suitable for climbing and descending on a variety of terrain.

 

-Four Cross/Dual Slalom (4X) is sport in which riders compete either on separate tracks, as in Dual Slalom; or on a short slalom track, as in 4X. Most bikes used are light hard-tails, although the last World Cup was actually won on a full suspension bike. The tracks on which the racers race on have dirt jumps, berms, and gaps. Professionals in gravity mountain biking tend to concentrate either on downhill mountain biking or 4X/dual slalom as each is very different.

 

-Freeride, as the name suggests is a 'do anything' discipline that encompasses everything from downhill racing (see above) without the clock to jumping, riding 'North Shore' style (elevated trails made of interconnecting bridges and logs), and generally riding trails and/or stunts that require more skill and aggressive techniques than XC. Freeride bikes are generally heavier and more amply suspended than their XC counterparts, but usually retain much of their climbing ability. It is up to the rider to build his or her bike to lean more toward a preferred level of aggressiveness.

 

"Slopestyle" type riding is an increasingly popular genre that combines big-air, stunt-ridden freeride with BMX style tricks. Slope-style courses are usually constructed at already established mountain bike parks and include jumps, large drops, quarter-pipes, and other wooden obstacles. There are always multiple lines through a course and riders compete for judges' points by choosing lines that highlight their particular skills. A "typical" freeride bike is hard to define, but 13-18 kilos (30-40) lbs with 150-250 millimeters (6-10 inches) of suspension front and rear.

 

-Dirt Jumping (DJ) is one of the names given to the practice of riding bikes over shaped mounds of dirt or soil and becoming airborne. The idea is that after riding over the 'take off' the rider will become momentarily airborne, and aim to land on the 'landing'. Dirt jumping can be done on almost anything but the bikes are generally smaller and more maneuverable hardtails so that tricks e.g. backflips, are easier to complete. The bikes simpler so that when a crash occurs there are fewer components that are liable to dysfunction and cause the rider injury. 

 

-Trials riding consist of hopping and jumping bikes over obstacles. It can be performed either off-road or in an urban environment. It requires an excellent sense of balance. As with Dirt Jumping and BMX-style riding, emphasis is placed on style, originality and technique. Trials bikes look almost nothing like mountain bikes. They use either 20", 24" or 26" wheels and have very small, low frames, some types without a saddle.

 

-Urban/Street is essentially the same as urban BMX, in which riders perform tricks by riding on, or over difficult construction objects. The bikes are the same as those used for Dirt Jumping, having 24" or 26" wheels. Also, they are very light, many in the range of 25-30 lbs, and having 0-100 millimeters or front suspension. As with Dirt Jumping and Trials, style and execution are emphasized.

 

-Short Cross or Speed Cross (SC) is the newest form of mountain biking. The idea is to ride short, narrow forest paths with rocks, roots and dints, but not necessarily any ramps on them. The optimal length of the paths are from a few tens to hundreds of meters. The shortness is to provide extreme speed and thrilling to get through the hindrances as fast as possible without crashing. The altitude of the paths does not have to vary much. The ultimate direction of the paths from vertical aspect can be the both ways, either up or down. The transitions between these essential parts are to be taken lightly and stopping at the beginning of every path is to provide maximum amount of thrilling action gained through the speed. This form of mountain biking is similar to what might be experienced in a XC or downhill race. The bikes for this purpose can vary from XC to FR.

 

-Cross-country (XCO) racing is held on a varied terrain circuit; it is normally around 6-8 kilometers (km) and is always a massed-start race. Under the controversial new 2006 UCI rules, elite, U23, and Junior Expert riders at UCI sanctioned races, are allowed technical assistance, but only in designated zones and only by an authorized team mechanic. However, riders in the same team can help each other at any point in the race. Under NORBA rules, no technical assistance is allowed. Professional level races are longer in distance, around 50km.

 

-Super D (SD) is a blend of cross-country and downhill. Most of the race is downhill, on trails similar to the downhill segment of a cross-country race. There are also short (100-500 m) uphill sections which make the use of downhill bicycles difficult, as a result, most riders use cross-country or 'trail bikes'. Depending on the trail and race venue, the start may either be seeded (riders start in short intervals), or Le Mans mass start (riders run to their bikes, timing is started when the riders start running).

 

-Marathon (XCM) is perhaps the toughest form of mountain biking because riders often have to cover more than 80 km in one race on mountainous terrain. The distances usually vary from 60km to 100km. Races often exceed 100km, but are then termed Ultra-Marathons. Recently UCI has inaugurated the Marathon World Cup. Basically it equals point-to-point (PP) discipline and that means that riders have a mass start from point "A" and they finish at point "B".

 

-Enduro (ND) is a relatively new development that has its roots in Marathon mountain biking. Endurance races tend either to last for 12 or 24 hours and although this can vary, there will generally be the following team categories: solo rider; pair; mixed (gender) pair; team (usually four people of the same gender); mixed team (five people of mixed gender). Aside from solo and paired riders, there are often intermediate (i.e. fun, expert, pro) classes within the other categories. Only one member of the team can be on the course at any one time, and it is a competition not to finish first, but to complete the greatest number of laps before the end of the event. Enduro races are also credited with the revival of mountain biking in recent years, mainly as a result of their participation and festival nature.

 

-Stage Races - Stage Races consist of several races - 'stages' - ridden consecutively, usually over a period of several days. A stage is usually similar in length and structure to a Marathon bike race. The competitor with the lowest cumulative time to complete all the stages is declared the overall, or General Classification (GC), winner. Stage races may also have other classifications and awards, such as individual stage winners.

 

Road (Racing) Bicycle:

 

They are designed for road cycling according to the rules of the (UCI). The rules were altered in 1934 to exclude recumbent bicycles are also commonly known as road bicycles.

The most important things about a racing bicycle are its light weight and the aerodynamic efficiency and ergonomics of the rider's position. To this effect racing bicycles may sacrifice comfort for speed. The drop handlebars positioned lower than the saddle order to put the rider in a more aerodynamic posture. The front and back wheels are close together so the bicycle has quick handling.

 

The racing bicycle is less popular than the sports bike (aka training bike, a slightly heavier and less expensive version of the road racing bike), the sport/touring bike (a road-only bike with more relaxed frame geometry for general recreation and day touring), or the mountain bike their basic entry-level form, mountain bikes, through mass production and popularity, tend to be less expensive than road racing bikes, though this is not true of more esoteric dual-suspension models. An entry-level mountain bike starts around half the price of an entry-level road racing bike.

Unless a rider intends riding on rough tracks, road bicycles including racing bikes are more efficient for road use. Cyclo-cross bicycle are used for racing on off-road circuits, and are closer to racing bikes than to mountain bikes.

 

Safety: A Must!

Helmets provide important head protection, as falls can occur over rough, rocky, sandy, or mountainous terrain. Helmets include full-faced helmets or regular.

Gloves differ from road touring gloves, are made of heavier construction, and often have covered thumbs or all fingers covered for hand protection. They are sometimes made with padding for the knuckles. Leather baseball gloves can also be used as a substitute by some.

Glasses with little or no difference from those used in other cycling sport’s; help protect against debris while on the trail. Filtered lenses, whether yellow for cloudy days or shaded for sunny days, protect the eyes from strain.

Shoes are chosen for their comfort and ability to withstand difficult terrain,

Clothing is chosen for comfort during physical exertion in the backcountry, and its ability to withstand falls. Road touring clothes are often inappropriate due to their delicate fabrics and construction.

Hydration systems are important for mountain bikers in the backcountry, ranging from simple water bottles to water bags with drinking tubes in lightweight backpacks.

GPS System is sometimes added to the handlebars and is used to display and monitor progress on trails downloaded from the internet or pre-made mapping systems, record trails on the fly, and keep track of trip times and other data. The GPS system is often a handheld GPS device with color screen and rugged, waterproof (IPX7) design.

Pump to inflate flat tires.

Bike tools and extra bike tubes are important, as mountain bikers frequently find themselves miles from help (where their cell phones may not work), with flat tires or other mechanical problems that must be handled by the rider.

Body armor Similar to the armor worn on motorcross bikes. These can consist of knee pads, elbow pads, padded shorts or armored under jackets. It is especially popular with downhill cycling.

 


 

Equestrian:

 

Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving horses. This broad description includes both use of horses for practical, working purposes as well as recreational activities and competitive sports.

 

Did you know that when viewing a statue of horse and rider? The position of the front legs of the horse signifies the way the hero died. All four legs on the ground: The rider died of natural cause and not in the military. One front leg rose:  The rider died while in the military. Rearing up on hind legs:  The rider died in battle.

 

Some Horse Breeds of the World:

 

(Breeds are Animals that, through selection and breeding, have come to resemble one another and pass those traits uniformly to their offspring)

 

Acuelo Creole
Andalusian
Appaloosa
Arabian
Australian Brumby
Australian Stock Horse

Buckskin

Camargue
Canadian
Cayuse
Chilean Corralero
Clydesdale
Connemara

Crillo/Crioulo
Fell Pony
Friesian

Haflinger
Hanoverian
Hungarian Sport Horse
Iberian
Icelandic
Lipizzan

Lusitano

Mangalarga

Maremmano

Missouri Fox Trotting
Mongolian
Morgan
Mustang
Paint
Paso Fino
Peruvian Paso
Pinto

Quarter Horse
Rocky Mountain Horse

Saddlebred

Shagya
Spanish
Tennessee Walking
Thoroughbred
Welsh Pony

 

For more: Click here

Cross-country sports

Competitive Mounted Orienteering, is a form of orienteering on horses - consists of three stages: following a precise route marked on a map, negotiation of obstacles, and control of paces.

Le Trec comprises three phases - trail riding, with jumping and correct basic flatwork. Le Trec, which is very popular in Europe, tests the partnership's ability to cope with an all-day ride across varied terrain, route finding, negotiating natural obstacles and hazards, while considering the welfare of the horse, respecting the countryside and enjoying all it has to offer.

Competitive trail riding, is held across terrain similar to endurance riding, but shorter in length, depending on class). Being a form of pace race, the objective is not to finish in the least time. Instead, as in other forms of judged trail riding, each competitor is graded on everything including physical condition, campsite, and horse management. Horsemanship also is considered, including how the rider handles the trail and how horse is handled and presented to the judge and vet throughout the ride. The horse is graded on performance, manners, etc. "Pulse and respiration" stops check the horse's recovery ability. The judges also set up obstacles along the trail and the horse and rider are graded on how well they perform as a team. The whole point is the partnership between the horse and rider.

Show Jumping is a timed event judged on the ability of the horse and rider to jump over a series of obstacles, in a given order and with the fewest refusals or knockdowns of portions of the obstacles.

Endurance riding, a competition usually of fifty miles or more, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness, and verify that the horse is fit to continue. The first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.

Hunter Pacing is a sport where a horse and rider team travel a trail at speeds based the ideal conditions for the horse, with competitors seeking to ride closest to that perfect time. Hunter paces are usually held in a series. Hunter paces are usually a few miles long and covered mostly at a canter or gallop. The horsemanship and management skills of the rider are also considered in the scoring, and periodic stops are required for veterinarians to check the vital signs and overall soundness of the horses.

Ride and Tie is a form of endurance riding in which teams of 3 ( a horse and two riders) alternate running and riding.

Trail riding is pleasure riding any breed horse, any style across the land.

English

The following forms of competition are seen in the United States and Canada and they are referred to as English Riding, to contrast them with western-style riding 

Hunter classes  is judging  the movement and the form of horses suitable for work over fences. A typical show hunter division would include classes over fences as well as "Hunter under Saddle" or "flat" classes (sometimes called "hack" classes), in which the horse is judged on its performance, manners and movement without having to jump. Hunters have a long, flat-kneed trot, sometimes called "daisy cutter" movement, a phrase suggesting a good hunter could slice daisies in a field when it reaches its stride out. The over fences classes in show hunter competition are judged on the form of the horse, its manners and the smoothness of the course. A horse with good jumping form snaps its knees up and jumps with a good bascule. It should also be able to canter or gallop with control while having a stride long enough to make a proper number of strides over a given distance between fences.

Eventing, combines the obedience of dressage with the athletic ability of show jumping. The horses jump over fixed obstacles, such as banks, ditches, logs, stone walls and water, trying to finish the course under the "optimum time."

Saddle seat is a primarily American discipline, was created to show to best advantage the animated movement of high-stepping and gaited breeds such as the American Saddlebred and the Tennessee Walker.. There are usually three basic divisions. Park divisions are for the horses with the highest action. Pleasure divisions still emphasis animated action, but to a lesser degree, with manners ranking over animation. Plantation or Country divisions have the least amount of animation (in some breeds, the horses are flat-shod) and the greatest emphasis on manners.

Western

Western riding style evolved to meet the working needs of cowboys in the American West. Though the differences between English and Western riding appear dramatic, there are more similarities than most people think. Both styles require riders to have a solid seat, with the hips and shoulders balanced over the feet, with hands independent of the seat so as to avoid disturbing the balance of the horse and interfering with its performance.

The most noticeable feature of western style riding is in the saddle, which has a substantial tree that provides greater support to horse and rider when working long hours in the saddle. The western saddle features a prominent pommel topped by a horn (a knob used for dallying the lariat after roping an animal), a deep seat and a high cantle. The stirrups are wider and the saddle has rings and ties that allow objects to be attached to the saddle. Western horses are asked to perform with a loose rein, controlled by one hand. The standard western bridle lacks a noseband and usually consists of a single set of reins attached to a curb bit that has somewhat longer and looser shanks than the curb of an English weymouth.

Western horses are asked to have a brisk, ground-covering walk, but a slow, relaxed jog trot that allows the rider to sit the saddle and not post. The Western version of the canter is called a lope and while collected and balanced, is expected to be slow and relaxed. Working western horses seldom use a sustained hand gallop, but must be able to accelerate quickly to high speed when chasing cattle or competing in rodeo speed events, must be able to stop quickly from a dead run and "turn on a dime."

Cutting is an in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. The sport originally evolved from cattle ranches in the American West, where it was the cutting horse's job to separate cows from the herd. Eventually competitions arose between the best cutting horses and riders in the area. The horses involved are typically Quarter horses, although other breeds may be used. A horse that instinctively knows how to keep a calf from returning to the herd, and is trained in a manner to be shown competitively, is considered a cutting horse.

Rodeo

Timed events

Barrel racing and pole bending - the timed speed and agility events  in rodeo’s. At most professional, sanctioned rodeos, barrel racing is an exclusively women's sport. In a barrel race, horse and rider gallop around a cloverleaf pattern of barrels, making agile turns without knocking the barrels over. In pole bending, horse and rider run the length of a line of six upright poles, turn sharply and weave through the poles, turn again and weave back, then return to the start.

Steer wrestling is a rodeo event where the rider jumps off his horse onto a steer and 'wrestles' it to the ground by grabbing it by the horns. This is probably the single most physically dangerous event in rodeo for the cowboy, who runs a high risk of jumping off a running horse head first and missing the steer, or of having the thrown steer land on top of him, sometimes horns first.

Goat tying  is usually an event for women or pre-teen girls and boys, a goat is staked out while a mounted rider runs to the goat, dismounts, grabs the goat, throws it to the ground and ties it in the same manner as a calf. This event was designed to teach smaller or younger riders the basics of calf roping without the more complex need to also lasso the animal.

Roping:

Calf roping is an event where a calf is roped around the neck by a lariat, the horse stops and sets back on the rope while the cowboy dismounts, runs to the calf, throws it to the ground and ties three feet together. (If the horse throws the calf, the cowboy must lose time waiting for the calf to get back to its feet so that the cowboy can do the work. The job of the horse is to hold the calf steady on the rope.

Team roping is the only rodeo event where men and women riders may compete together. Two people capture and restrain a full-grown steer. One horse and rider, the "header," lassos a running steer's horns, while the other horse and rider, the "heeler," lassos the steer's two hind legs. Once the animal is captured, the riders face each other and lightly pull the steer between them, so that it loses its balance, thus in the real world allowing restraint for treatment.

Breakaway roping is an easier form of calf roping where a very short lariat is used, tied lightly to the saddle horn with string and a flag. When the calf is roped, the horse stops, allowing the calf to run on, flagging the end of time when the string and flag breaks from the saddle. In the United States, this event is primarily for women of all ages and boys under 12, while in some nations where traditional calf roping is frowned upon, riders of both genders compete.

Rough Stock:

Bronc riding - there are two divisions in rodeo, bareback bronc riding, where the rider is only allowed to hang onto a bucking horse with a surcingle, and saddle bronc riding, where the rider is allowed a specialized western saddle without a horn (for safety) and may hand onto a heavy lead rope attached to a halter on the horse.

Bull Riding - though technically not an equestrian event, as the cowboys ride full-grown bulls instead of horses, skills similar to bareback bronc riding are required.

 

Riding:

For beginning horseback riders:

To begin with: take a safe ride, this means wearing a helmet, boots, look out for traffic,

Mounting the horse is best done on the left side. Use a mounting block to avoid that the saddle slips to one side.

To start moving, cue the horse with your legs and push the seat forward. If this doesn't get your horse moving, use your heals.

Don't pull the reins too hard, but only so that you feel a light connection with the bit. If you want to go left, pull the reins to the left, to go right pull the reins to the right.

Relax your body and try to follow your horse's movements.

Balance yourself by using the pressure of your feet in the stirrups. Grab the horn for additional balance.

To stop moving, pull the reins backwards.

Always stay relaxed, you can get a lot more done from a horse by being friendly and showing your appreciation then by getting angry and frustrated.

Many of our parks, forests, and wilderness areas can still be explored on the back of a horse for a unique natural adventure. Many Federal recreation areas offer trail riding as well as off-trail riding. Stables and guides may be available at some public land recreation areas. Licensing, fees and seasonal restrictions vary from site to site.

 

Safety While Horseback Riding:

Wear proper clothing and footwear, according to the terrain and season

Be courteous and remember that you are sharing the trail, roadway, or public land with other riders and recreationists

Do not ride on unauthorized trails, roadways, or public lands

Bring along extra safety items such as water, flashlights, maps, and a cellphone or radio

Happy Trails


Fishing:

Freshwater & Saltwater

Catching a fish with a hook is known as Angling.

Types of Nets

The Cast net is a small round net with weights on the edges which is thrown by the fisher. Sizes vary up to about four metres in diameter. The net is thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out on the water and sinks. Fish are caught as the net is hauled back in.

A Drift net is a net that is not anchored. It is usually a gillnet, and is commonly used in the coastal waters of many countries.

The Gillnet net is used to catch fish which try to pass through it by snagging on the gill covers. Thus trapped, the fish can neither advance through the net nor retreat

Hand nets are held open by a hoop and are possibly on the end of a long stiff handle. 

The Seine net is a large fishing net that may be arranged in a number of different ways. In purse seine fishing the net hangs vertically in the water by attaching weights along the bottom edge and floats along the top. A simple and commonly used fishing technique is beach seining, where the seine net is operated from the shore.

The Stake net is a form of net for catching salmon. It consists of a sheet of network stretched on stakes fixed into the ground, generally in rivers or where the sea ebbs and flows, for entangling and catching the fish.

Trawl net is a large net, conical in shape, designed to be towed in the sea or along the sea bottom. The trawl is pulled through the water by one or more boats, called trawlers. The activity of pulling the trawl through the water is called trawling.

Sport fishing is usually done with hook, line, rod and reel rather than with nets or other aids.

 

Reels:

 

For the beginner, the best reel is a spinning reel.

 

There are different reels for different types of fishing. The basic difference is how the spool is set: fixed spool reels (spinning and spincasting) have the spool parallel to the rod. When you cast or let line out, it "spins" off the end of the spool. When you reel in, a part (the bail) rotates around the spool and wraps the line back onto it.

Revolving spool reels (bait casting, conventional, and fly reels) have the spool perpendicular to the rod, so to let line out the spool has to rotate. When you're winding in, the spool turns the other way.

Spinning reels are popular because they're easy to use and can cast light weights a good distance. Spincasting reels are somewhat easier to use, though they can't cast quite as far.

Bait casting reels have better drag systems (better for fighting larger fish), and when you learn how to use them, can cast more accurately than spinning reels, though with very light weights, a spinning reel is better. (When casting a revolving spool reel, you have to control the spool speed with your thumb, which takes a bit of practice to learn.) Conventional reels are larger versions of bait casters, generally without the level-wind mechanism, used for ocean fishing. With heavier weights, the revolving spool reels can cast much farther than spinners.

 

Quick tip:   When fishing with live bait, you must let the fish run with the bait (take the line) before you set the hook.

Reel Mechanisms

Direct-drive reel

Direct-drive reels have the spool and handle directly coupled. When the handle moves forwards, the spool moves forwards, and vice-versa. With a fast-running fish, this may have consequences for the angler's knuckles. Traditional fly reels are direct-drive.

Anti-reverse reel

In anti-reverse reels, a mechanism allows line to pay out while the handle remains stationary. Depending on the drag setting, line may also pay out, as with a running fish, while the angler reels in. Bait casting reels and many modern saltwater fly reels are examples of this design. The mechanism works either with a 'dog' or 'pawl' design that engages into a cog wheel attached to the handle shaft. The latest design is Instant Anti-Reverse, or IAR. This system incorporates a one-way clutch bearing on the handle shaft to restrict handle movement to forward motion only.

FYI: Some flies used in trout fishing. Blue Professor, Bottle Imp, General Hooker, Tango Triumph, Walla Walls and Rat-Faced McDougal?

Drag Mechanisms

Drag is a mechanical means of applying variable pressure to the turning spool in order to act as a friction brake against it. It can be as simple as a flat spring pressing against the edge of the spool, or as sophisticated as a complicated arrangement of leather and Teflon discs. Properly set drag allows larger and more powerful fish to be safely brought to boat and landed, as the drag will "slip" below the breaking point of the line, but in combination with the angle of the rod, it puts relentless pressure on the fish, quickly tiring it. As a rough general rule, drag is nominally set at about one-half of the line's breaking strength. It can be adjusted up or down as needed by the fisherman while playing a fish, though it takes practice to do this without adding too much drag which frequently results in a broken line and a lost fish.

Four basic types of fishing reels:  spin casting reels, spinning reels, bait casting reels, and fly-fishing reels.  Spin casting and bait casting reels usually sit on top of the rod, while spinning reels and fly-fishing reels hang below the rod.  More specialized types of reels include big game reels, boat reels, and surf casting reels.  Most of today's reels are labeled according to the type of fishing line they are meant to handle, while others suggest a range of length capacities for different line weights.  Larger reels will generally have greater line capacities.

Quick tip: When cleaning your boat chrome use white toothpaste to scrub off oxidation or other stains.

Spin Casting Reels

Spin casting reels are ideal for beginner fishermen because they are inexpensive and easy to use.  Spinning reels are more expensive and more versatile than spin casting reels, and they can cast lures farther as well.  Bait casting reels, also known as casting reels, afford the fisherman more control when casting and when fighting a fish.  However, they are rather difficult to use and are susceptible to backlash, a condition in which the line becomes tangled.  Fly-fishing reels are used by fly fishermen to hold the fly-fishing line and, in some cases, to fight strong fish with their drag systems, but they are not involved in the casting process.

Quick Tip: When fishing with jigs on a low visibility day, add a rattle to the jig. The noise will attract the fish more.

Spinning (fixed spool) Reels

They were originally developed to allow the use of artificial flies, or other lures for trout or salmon, that were too light in weight to be easily cast by bait casting reels. Fixed spooled reels are normally mounted below the rod. Spinning reels also solved the problem of backlash, as they did not have a rotating spool to overrun and foul the line. The earliest fixed-spool reels turned the spool 90 degrees in the body of the reel for retrieval, and then reversed it back into casting position. In casting position, line was drawn off in coils from the end of the fixed, non-rotating spool. And they are good for saltwater. Many people, especially beginners, choose spinning reels because their mechanisms eliminate tangle-producing backlashes.  Spinning reels come in varied sizes which depend upon the line size being used.

Quick Tip: Trout will always face upstream waiting for the current to bring them food. Casting your spinner ahead and bringing it downstream will help improve your chances of landing a trophy trout.

Bait Casting Reels

Unlike spinning reels, bait casting reels are small revolving spool reels, many of which have level wind mechanisms.  Today's bait casting reels are popular because they offer a combination of free-spool casting and adjustable drags.  Other improvements include anti-backlash aids, multiple ball bearings, and variable gearing.  Some bait casting reels even offer an anti-reverse, which means the handle can rotate backward similar to older types of bait casting reels.  The point of this is to allow small amounts of line to be let off the fishing reel by cranking backward.  There are two basic families of bait casting reels.  Round reels have round end plates, and have a greater line capacity than the other family.  Round reels are best used in salt water and for long-running freshwater fish.  The other type of bait casting reel is smaller and lighter in weight, and has elliptical end plates.  Because these reels are designed to cast farther and more efficiently, they are particularly well suited to bass anglers.

Fish are enticed by trolling fishing lures (designed to resemble squid or other baitfish) or baits behind the boat. Multiple lines are often used. Outriggers were designed to spread the lines more widely.

Fly Reels

Most fly reels are single action, meaning that they have no gears.  Instead, the spool goes around one turn every time the crank is turned.  Automatic fly reels are another type of reel, most often used for light freshwater fishing.  These reels have no crank handle whatsoever.  Instead, line is retrieved by winding up a spring mechanism and then pressing a trigger.  The type of fly reel you use becomes a real consideration once you fish in saltwater or fish larger, longer-running freshwater fish.  Reels used in fighting and bringing in fish must have a larger capacity in order to hold the fly line, as well as a quantity of backing line.  If you are angling for offshore fish, the single-action reel should be passed over in favor of a more rugged machined model.

Big Game Reels

If you are fishing for big game, chances are you'll need "tournament" class tackle.  Some of the highest quality — not to mention the highest priced — reels fit into this category.  Big game reels are generally divided into two categories.  Star-drag reels are sturdy, dependable reels that feature a free spool lever and separate star-drag mechanism.  Lever-drag reels, by comparison, combine the free spool and the drag-setting lever into one unit.  These reels allow drag changes, which is a huge advantage over star-drag reels.

The billfish (broadbill, marlin, sailfish and swordfish and  larger tunas (bluefin, yellowfin, and bigeye) and sharks (mako, great white, tiger, hammerhead and other large species) are the main species recognized as big-game fish.

Boat Reels

Boat reels should have a free spool lever, a star-drag adjustment device, and a metal spool.  Level wind reels are very popular boat reels, because they lay the line evenly on the spool so that the angler doesn't have to do this manually.  When all is said and done, choosing the right boat reel depends upon the line size.  As a rule of thumb, inshore fishing, including fishing done in lakes and bays, requires a reel with a minimum of 200 yards line capacity.  Reels used for offshore fishing should hold 300 to 400 yards of line.

Surf Casting Reels

While surfing reels are similar to most other saltwater reels, they are equipped with wider spools, and sometimes additional features, which make them easier to cast efficiently

Quick Tip:  When using a spinnerbait for bass, slide on a plastic twister tail to the hook, to give it even more action that Bass cannot resist

Fishing Rods:

Cane-Fiberglass -Graphite –

 Quick Tip: Freshwater fishing poles are different from saltwater or ocean fishing poles, they usually are much smaller.

Spinning Rods

Spinning rods are made from graphite or fiberglass with a cork or PVC foam handle, and tend to be between 5 and 8.5 feet (1.5 - 2.6 m) in length. Typically, spinning rods have anywhere from 5-8 large-diameter guides arranged along the underside of the rod to help control the line. The eyes decrease in size from the handle to the tip, with the one nearest the handle usually much larger than the rest to allow less friction as the coiled line comes off the reel. Unlike bait casting and spin casting reels, the spinning reel hangs beneath the rod rather than sitting on top, and is held in place with a sliding or locking reel seat. Spinning rods and reels are widely used in fishing for popular North American sport fish including bass, trout, pike and walleye. Longer spinning rods with elongated grip handles for two-handing casting are frequently employed for saltwater or steelhead and salmon fishing. Spinning rods are also widely used for trolling and still fishing with live bait.

Surf Rods

Surf-casting rods resemble oversized spinning or bait-casting rods with long grip handles for two-handed casting. Surf rods need to be long, 10 to 14 feet (3 to 4 m) in length, so you can cast beyond the breaking surf where the fish are. And they need to be sturdy so you can use heavy weighted lures or bait that can stay on the bottom of rough waters.

Some surfcasters use powerful rods to cast half-pound bait and lure rigs more than two hundred feet into the ocean.

Bait-Casting and Closed-Spin Casting Rods

Bait-casting and closed-spin casting rods are designed to hold reels that are mounted above the handle. So the line-guide eyes are on the top and the casting trigger is on the bottom.

They're made from graphite or fiberglass with a cork or PVC foam handle and tend to be between 5 and 8.5 feet (1.5 to 2.6 m) in length. They have anywhere from five to eight guide eyes to help control the line. The eyes decrease in size from the handle to the tip, with the one nearest the handle usually much larger than the rest to allow less friction as the coiled line comes off the reel.

Longer rods, with elongated grip handles for two-handed casting, are frequently used for saltwater or steelhead and salmon fishing. Spinning rods are also widely used for trolling and still fishing with live bait.

Bigger rods are used for bigger bait and bigger fish.

Chumming, or chunking, is the process of throwing pieces bait fish overboard to attract larger game fish.

Fly Rods

In fly fishing the side and reverse casts are generally used when wind is a problem. They are also used if there are obstacles that can make a regular cast difficult.

Fly rods come in a variety of sizes to catch anything from small freshwater pan fish to large saltwater game fish. Fly rods tend to have a single, large-diameter line guide (referred to as a stripping guide), with a number of smaller looped guides (“snake guides”) spaced along the rod to help control the movement of the relatively thick fly line.

Fly rods are almost always built out of carbon graphite and the rod tapers from one end to the other. The degree of taper determines the amount of flex in the rod. The flex and length of your fly rod depends on where you're fishing and what you're after.

Fly fishermen love to make their own flies. They also like to make their own rods. Custom rod building is a popular hobby with fly fishermen.

Sea Rods

If you're trying to catch big fish, you need big equipment. Sea rods are long (around 10 feet on average), extremely thick and feature huge and heavy tips, eyes, and handles. There are different rods designed for surf casting and for fishing from a boat on the ocean.

Ice Fishing Rods

Really short spin casting rods, varying between 24 and 36 inches in length, are used for ice fishing.

Telescopic Rods

Telescopic fishing rods are designed to collapse down to a short distance and open to a long rod.. This makes the rods very easy to transport.

Telescopic fishing rods are made from the same materials as conventional one- or two-piece rods. Graphite and fiberglass or composites of these materials are designed to slip into each other so that they open and close. The eyes are generally, but not always, a special design to help make the end of each section stronger. Various grade eyes available on conventional rods are also available on telescopic fishing rods.

Care for telescopic fishing rods is much the same as other rods. The only difference being you should not open the telescopic rod into the open position rapidly.

Carbon-Fiber Pole

Carbon-fiber poles are commonly used by professionals. They're made with a variety of different qualities of carbon fiber that result in precise casting.

Ultra-light Rods

If you want to catch smaller fish, such as trout, bass, bluegill, as well as other types of panfish, or get more fight out of a larger fish, then try an ultra-light fishing pole. They're shorter (4 - 5.5 feet is common), lighter and have more flex than normal rods. Tip actions vary from slow to fast, depending on your intended use.

Tackle: (Terminal)

This includes hooks, sinkers, floats, leaders, swivels, split rings and wire, snaps, weights, diving lures, top water suresbeads, spoons, blades, spinners and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures. Each type of fishing lure performs differently underwater depending on its design. As with Spinners, spoons, jigs, and soft plastic baits, they will all perform in a different way when reeled through the water. And as to the proper fishing line, Choose a high strength monofilament (single strand) fishing line that has been a benchmark for knot strength and abrasion resistance, the wrong type of line and you may not be able to land your catch.


Flying:

  Gliding: *Paragliders, Hang gliders , Gliders/Sailplanes

 

    (Paragliders have much greater lift and range than parachutes).

 

Thermals

The most commonly used source of lift is created by the sun's energy heating the ground which in turn heats the air above it. This warm air rises in columns known as thermals. Soaring pilots quickly become aware of land features which can generate thermals; and of visual indications of thermals such as soaring birds, cumulus clouds, cloud streets, dust devils, and haze domes. Also, nearly every glider contains an instrument known as a vaiometer (rate-of-climb indicator, a vertical speed indicator (VSI), or a vertical velocity indicator (VVI)) which shows visually (and often audibly) the presence of lift and sink. Having located a thermal, a glider pilot will circle within the area of rising air to gain height. In the case of a cloud street thermals can line up with the wind creating rows of thermals and sinking air. A pilot can use a cloud street to fly long straight-line distances by remaining in the row of rising air.

 

Ridge lift

Ridge lift occurs when the wind meets a mountain, cliff or hill. The air is deflected up the windward face of the mountain, causing lift. Gliders can climb in this rising air by flying along the feature. Another name for flying with ridge lift is slope soaring.

 

Mountain waves

The third main type of lift used by glider pilots is the lee waves that occur near mountains. The obstruction to the airflow can generate standing waves with alternating areas of lift and sink. The top of each wave peak is often marked by lenticular cloud formations.

 

Convergence

Another form of lift results from the convergence of air masses, as with a sea-breeze front. More exotic forms of lift are the polar vortexes.

Comparison of gliders, hang gliders and paragliders

 

The three classes of hang glider:

* The Federation Aeronautique Internationale is the world governing body for air sports and aeronautics and astronautics world records

 

There is sometimes confusion between gliders, hang gliders and paragliders. In particular paragliders and hang gliders are both foot-launched aircraft. The main differences between the types are:


Paragliders

Hang gliders

Gliders/Sailplanes

Undercarriage:

Pilot's legs used for take-off and landing

Pilot's legs used for take-off and landing

Aircraft takes off and lands using a wheeled undercarriage or skids

Wing structure:

Entirely flexible, with shape maintained purely by the pressure of air flowing into the wing in flight and the tension of the lines. Prone to collapse in turbulence.

generally flexible but supported on a rigid frame which determines its shape and thus does not collapse in turbulence, but note that rigid wing hang gliders also exist

rigid surface to wings that totally encases structure

Pilot position:

Sitting ‘supine’ in a seated harness.

Usually lying ‘prone’ in a cocoon-like harness suspended from the wing. Seated, and 'supine' are also possible.

Sitting in a seat with a harness surrounded by a crash-resistant structure.

Speed range (stall speed – max speed):

slower – hence easier to launch and fly in light winds, can get into trouble when winds pick up, poor wind penetration and no pitch control, cannot dive for speed, although some pitch variation can be achieved with speed bar.

faster – much faster, up to 145 km/h (90+ mph), hence easier to launch and fly in stronger conditions with better wind penetration, and can outrun bad weather, full pitch control

Even faster - maximum speed up to about 280 km/h (170 mph); stall speed typically 65 km/h (40mph). Able to fly in windier turbulent conditions and can outrun bad weather. Exceptional penetration into the wind. Semi- or fully aerobatic.

Maximum glide ratio:

about 12, relatively poor glide performance makes long-distances more difficult

About 17 for flexible wings, though up to 20 for rigid wings. Glide performance enables longer-distance flying, 700km (430+ mile) record

about 70, high glide performance enabling long distances, 3000km (1800+ mile record)

Turn radius:

tighter turn radius, allowing circling in the rapidly rising center of thermals

somewhat larger turn radius, not allowing such a high rate of climb in thermals

even greater turn radius but still able to circle tightly in thermals

Landing-out:

Smaller space needed to land, offering more landing options from cross-country flights. Also easier to carry back to the nearest road

longer approach & landing area required, but can reach more landing areas due superior glide range

Can land in less than 200 meters and can often reach another airfield. Specialized trailer needed to retrieve by road

Learning:

Quicker to get ‘into the air’ with most skills learned in the air; flying tandem with an instructor is rarely necessary during instruction.

A citation is needed

basic control skills are learned in ground school, and in flights close to the ground prior to high flights;

teaching is done in a two seat glider with dual controls

Convenience:

pack smaller (easier to transport and store); lighter (easier to carry); quicker to rig & de-rig; transported in the trunk of a car

more awkward to transport & store; longer to rig and de-rig; transported on the roof of a car

Trailers are typically 10 m (30 ft) long. Rigging & de-rigging takes about 20 minutes

Cost:

cheaper but less durable

more expensive, a flying citation is needed but more durable

Long lasting (several decades), so active second hand market in all price ranges, but cost of new gliders very high. Often syndicated.

 

 

Helicopters:    

  robinsonweblogo.jpg

If you just want to enjoy the scenery on nice days in your area, a helicopter beats an airplane anytime. The visibility from a helicopter is better than from almost any airplane. One can see from the paragraph below, that helicopter officers you great sightseeing opportunities.

The FAA regulation: FAR 91.119 says "Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, no person may operate an aircraft below the following altitudes..." and it turns out to be illegal to fly an airplane less than 1000' above the rooftops of a city (i.e., about 1200' above the ground) or 500' from any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure in the countryside (i.e., at least 500' above the ground). This is a much closer look than you would get in a commercial airliner, but it isn't all that close. FAR 91.119(d) says "Helicopters may be operated at less than the minimums prescribed in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section if the operation is conducted without hazard to persons or property on the surface." As long as the helicopter could autorotate to a tennis court, road, or field in the event of an engine failure, the pilot can fly much lower than in an airplane.

The FAA requires that you have at least 40 hours of helicopter time before they'll give you a Private certificate. In practice most students take closer to 60 hours. New pilots have to learn all the rules and regulations, how to read charts and understand airspace, how to talk on the radio, how to navigate when on a cross-country flight, and how to fly a helicopter.

If you are already a certificated airplane pilot you already have all of the required skills except knowing how to fly a helicopter. The FAA relaxes the flight time requirement to 30 hours and in practice many students are able to pass their checkride after 40 hours.

 

Skydiving:  (Parachutes are designed to absorb the stresses of deployment at terminal velocity)

Accelerated Free Fall

This method of skydiving training is called "accelerated" because the progression is the fastest way to experience solo freefall, normally from 10,000 to 14,500 feet "Above Ground Level" (AGL).

Tandem

Student skydiver is connected via a harness to a tandem instructor. The instructor guides the student through the whole jump from exit through freefall, piloting the canopy, and landing. In dual sky diving, the jumpers utilize a drogue parachute, which slows down the free fall of two to that of one jumper.

QT: The modern parachute was invented in the late 18th century in France, and the first recorded public jump was in in 1783 by Louis-Sébastien Lenormand . Two years later, another Frenchman, Jean-Pierre Blanchard demonstrated it as a means of safely disembarking from a hot air balloon. While Blanchard's first parachute demonstrations were conducted with a dog as the passenger, he later had the opportunity to try it himself in 1793 when his hot air balloon ruptured and he used a parachute to escape


 

Golf:   From Teeing ground to the Cup.

Term on
scoreboard

Specific term

Definition

-4

Condor

four strokes under par

-3

Albatross

three strokes under par

-2

Eagle

two strokes under par

-1

Birdie

one stroke under par

0

Par

strokes equal to par

+1

Bogey

one stroke over par

+2

Double Bogey

two strokes over par

+3

Triple Bogey

three strokes over par

+4

Quadruple Bogey

four strokes over par

Basic Rules of Golf:

Identifying Your Ball

 

You may mark and lift your ball in order to identify it anywhere except in a hazard. However, you must tell your opponent or fellow competitor before doing so and you may not clean it except to the extent necessary to identify it.

 

Striking the Ball

 

For a stroke to be considered to have been played, the player must have had the intent to strike the ball. Likewise, if you intend to strike the ball and you miss, that IS a stroke. You may not improve the area in which you intend to make a swing. When tree limbs or weeds are in your way they cannot be moved except to fairly take your stance.

 

Playing a Wrong Ball

 

There is never a penalty if you play a wrong ball from a hazard. If you have done so, you must then play the proper ball from the hazard. Outside a hazard, in match play, if you play a ball that is not yours, you lose the hole. In stroke play, if you play a ball that is not yours, there is a two-stroke penalty. You must then play out the hole with your own ball. If you do not do so, you are disqualified

 

Match Play

 

Match Play is when you play the game by holes. If you win a hole over your opponent you are 1 up. When you have won more points than there are holes remaining you have won the match.

 

Stroke Play

 

Stroke Play is sometimes referred to as medal play. The player who finishes the round in the fewest strokes is the winner in stroke play. If you have 94 and your opponent has 97, you are the winner. The ball must be played into each and every hole. There are no gimmies in proper stroke play. The general penalty in stroke play for a violation of the rules is two strokes.

When keeping score in stroke play, you keep your opponent's score and your opponent keeps yours. Be sure the scores are properly recorded at the end of each hole. This will eliminate problems at the end of the round. Be sure to sign and attest the scorecard at the end of play.

 

In stroke play, there is no penalty if your ball strikes your opponent, their caddie or their equipment and the ball is played as it lies.

 

 

FYI: "stymie”: To be stymied means an opponent's ball is between your ball and the hole on the green.

 

Player's Responsibilities

 

As the ball lies, it should also be played as such.

 

You are allowed no more than fourteen clubs. Except in special circumstances, you must use the same ball for the entire hole. If you have cut your ball during the play of a hole and wish to change it, you must first ask your opponent for permission to do so.

 

During the play of a hole, you may not hit any practice shots. You may practice putting between the play of two holes so long as you are not delaying play. This always causes confusion because such putting between holes is not permitted on the PGA Tour.

 

During a round, you may not ask anyone except your caddie or your partner for advice as to how to hit a shot. You may ask for information about the Rules or the fixed position of hazards or the flagstick. Example: It is okay to ask, "Is the hole cut in the back of the green?" It is not okay to ask your opponent, "Do you think I should use a 7 iron?" Likewise, it is not permissible to offer advice to your opponent.

 

The Putting Green & Flagstick

 

Your ball is considered to be on the green if any part of it is touching the green. You may brush away leaves and other loose Impediments that are on your line of putt with your hand or a club.

 

You are not allowed to use a cap or towel to do this. Ball marks or old hole plugs should be repaired but damage from shoes or spikes cannot be repaired until play of the hole is finished.

 

You may mark your ball on a green by putting a coin or other marker behind it when you want to pick it up to clean or get it out of another player's way.

 

If your ball is off the green, there is no penalty if you play and your ball strikes the flagstick, provided no one is holding the flagstick. If your ball is on the green, do not putt with the flagstick in the hole. Either remove the flagstick from the hole or ask another player to hold it and remove it after you have struck your putt. If you putt and your ball hits the flagstick when it is in the hole, in match play you lose the hole. In stroke play, you must add two penalty strokes to your score for the hole.

 

Relief: Lifting & Dropping the Ball

 

You must put a ball marker like a coin behind your ball if you are going to lift the ball. When you drop a ball, stand erect, hold your arm out straight and drop it. If anyone else's ball interferes with your swing or is in your line of putt, you may have it marked and lifted. If you believe your ball is in a position to help your opponent you may mark and lift

 

Relief: Hazards & Obstructions

 

A hazard is any bunker or water hazard. In a hazard, you may not touch the sand, the ground or the water with your club before or during your backswing.

 

In a hazard, you may not remove loose impediments which are natural items like as leaves, twigs, stumps, nuts, etc. Obstructions are artificial objects like cigarettes, milk cartons, rakes, etc. Obstructions can be moved.

 

Relief: Ball Lost or Out of Bounds

 

A ball is lost if it is not found within five minutes after you first begin to search for it. It is out of bounds when all of it lies out of bounds.

 

If your ball is lost or out of bounds, (OB) you must add one penalty stroke and replay your shot from where you last played.

 

If you believe your ball may be lost or out of bounds, you are allowed to play a provisional ball from where you originally played. You must declare that it is a provisional ball. This is designed to save time.

 

If you find your original ball you must play it -- you do not have the option of playing your provisional.

 

Additionally:

Be sure you pick up your feet when walking. If you shuffle your golf shoes, you are very likely to make spike marks on the fragile putting surface.

Don't step within two feet of any hole.

Don't walk in another player's "line" while putting.

Never place your tee in front of the tee markers while driving. Only between or behind is acceptable.

Make sure your cell phone is either off or on silent while on the golf course.

Talking on your cell phone is discouraged and considered rude.

Always give the "honor" of teeing off first to the best player on the hole previous.

ALWAYS take out the flag when you are putting in a competition, once all the other players have reached the green. If you putt with the flag in, it is a two stroke penalty. Suddenly, your chance at a birdie turns into a bogey.....

Have respect for your fellow players. Never talk while they are making a stroke, or comment on their style of play or swing.

Don't delay in taking a shot. Your post shot routine, practice shot and swing itself should only take a minute or less.If you aren't playing fast enough and there is another group waiting to play behind you, step out of their way, and wave to them, motioning for them to play through you. However, make sure you are out of the way, or you could get seriously injured.

Before taking a shot, look around, and make sure that there is nothing you could hit or collide with while you are taking a shot, especially golf bags, trees, and people!

 

Club use: = Control &Yardage

 

The sequential clubs in a set (3-iron, 4-iron, 5-iron and up) are designed so that there should be a regular yardage interval between clubs. For most players, that interval will be 10-15 yards (a 3-iron will go 10 yards farther than a 4-iron, which will go 10 yards farther than a 5-iron). Again, this will vary from player to player.

Manufacturers control distance mainly through shaft length and the loft of the clubface. A 5-iron will be shorter than a 3-iron - resulting in less clubhead speed - and the 5-iron will have more loft on the face, which will cause the ball to fly higher.

One must also take into consideration that wind will usually require the use a higher numbered club

Quick Tip: Pulled shots come from a closed clubface or the path swing; most players suffer from the latter as they start their downswing. Work on this, and your putting will improve.

Major Championships

Men’s: The major championships are the four most prestigious men's tournaments of the year. In chronological order they are: The Masters, the U.S. Open, the “British” Open Championship and the PGA Championship.

Women’s: The LPGA Championship, the U.S. Women's Open and the Women's British Open.

Senior’s: The Senior PGA Championship, the U.S. Senior Open, the Senior British Open, The Tradition and the Senior Players Championship.

Types of Golf shots

The drive is a long-distance shot played from the tee box, intended to move the ball a great distance down the fairway.

The approach shot is made with the intention of placing the ball on the green.

A chip shot is a very short lofted shot, generally made with an abbreviated swing motion with a lofted club. Chip shots are used as very short approach shots as a "lay-up" shot to reposition the ball on the fairway, or to get the ball out of a hazard such as a sand trap.

The putt is a shot designed to roll the ball along the ground. It is normally made on the putting green using a putter, though other clubs may be used to achieve the same effect in different situations. A lag is a long putt designed less to try to place the ball in the cup than to simply move the ball closer to the hole for an easier putt into the hole

Addressing the Ball:  This really refers to the final position taken by a golfer just before the swing.

 

One will have their feet at some fixed position relative to the ball. This is the address position and is sometimes referred to as "addressing the ball". Of course, there are other aspects, such as the golfer’s posture at this moment, such as a slight bend of the knees.

 

The Grip:

1.    Take your hands and grasp the club as you normally would.

2.    Interlock the index finger of your left hand and the pinky of your right hand.

3.    Understand that this will feel awkward at first, but you will get used to it and it will hold your grip.

 

Tip: It is best to learn this with a glove.

 

The Swing:

·Stand with your spine in a neutral position and bend from the hips, with feet shoulders width apart.

·Rotate the torso on the back swing, and 'set' the lead wrist fully before you reach the top, creating a 90 degree angle between your lead forearm and the shaft.

·When swinging down, 'haul' the head of the club so that it lags behind everything else, and allow the 90 degree forearm/shaft angle to increase, then unwind rapidly through the impact area. This creates tremendous clubhead speed while allowing the body to move relatively slowly and maintain control.

·Make sure to have the shaft leaning forward toward the target at the moment of impact, this will help to have the face of the club face square at impact, an important factor in directional control.

·"Swing-set-through" is the rhythm. It isn't critical how far back you take the club but if you have released the club correctly, you will follow through completely; your belt buckle will be facing the target, the club will be behind you, you will be balanced on your lead foot with the back foot balanced on its toe. You should be able to comfortably hold this finish as you watch the ball fly off into the distance.

·Be sure your swing isn't coming too far inside your body and your ball is heading left. Also be careful that you're not opening up and getting the ball shooting off to the right.

** By not finishing your golf swing completely, you don't get your hands turned over which can leave the club face open at impact and cause a fade or a slice can, it can also cause you to lose distance on your shots

Practice one skill or mechanical change at a time. If your instructor makes four swing changes, pick one change to work on at a time. Stick to one swing thought or one drill at a time.

 

Quick tip: Do yourself a favor and improve your game, give in and get some instruction (at the very least, basic) from a golf pro, it will make a world of difference in your game.

 

 “KEEP YOUR EYE ON THE BALL AND -----**follow-through with your swing----

 

GET A TEE TIME @ Activegolf.com

Quick Tip: If playing by the book, only 14 clubs are allowed in a player's bag at one time during a stipulated round.

Reading the Green & then Putting:

Prior to every putt, squat behind your line to find the high and low side, it will make a world of difference in sinking the ball.

As you approach the green, take a mental inventory of its general shape. Is it sloping toward your ballr away from it? Does the green fall off on one side, and which side? These larger features will take priority over smaller breaks when determining how your ball will roll.

* A good rule of thumb “each foot of distance requires one inch of backswing with your putter”.

Most greens are built low in the front and high in the back. They are designed the way they are for two reasons. First of all, they have to have a run off for the drainage. And secondly, the nature of the game is for the putting surface to take an approach shot. The green has to have some angle facing the fairway so the golf ball will have chance to stop on the green

When you land on the back of the green, take into consideration that your putt is going to be a downhill putt, conversely, when putting too the cup, you are going uphill.

When you approach the green it is important to look at the contours and assess the slopes and lie of the land. Also observe the dampness of the green.

Check your break from the low side of your line.

Stabilize and Putt: Putting is accomplished by the upper body only. The lower body must stay as still as possible. If it doesn't, you'll have a lot of inconsistencies in your putting.

Controlling the speed of your putt is extremely important. Consider that breaking putts should enter the hole from the side, not the front.

In order to make the ball holds its line, hit a putt a putt that would take the ball about 16 inches past the hole.

With your pace of putt in mind, pick the break you envisage the putt will take. Then pick your target out as a straight line and hit the ball at the right speed so that it takes the break.

Chip Shots:


During the entire chipping swing the arms are the only part of the body that moves.  As the swing begins the arms, hands and golf club move in one motion together to the top of the swing and they move together in the downswing. Swing only your arms.

Your shoulders do no turn, they tilt. During the backswing the right shoulder tilts up because of the address position. The arms swing independent of your body. Chipping is such an exact stroke that you must stay as quiet as a putt. Swinging the arms will generate enough power to send a chip shot the desired distance and location.

Pitching:

The further back in your stance the lower the trajectory and the less backspin and more roll. The further forward in your stance the higher the trajectory and the more backspin and less roll. 

The benefit to playing the ball back in your stance is the ability to make ball turf contact. If the golf ball is back in your stance it is easier to make contact because the club head is swinging down towards the golf ball.

The further forward you move the golf ball in your stance the greater the risk of hitting the ball on the upswing. If you make contact on the upswing you will strike the middle or top of the golf ball and the result will be a low shot with flat trajectory.


Addressing the golf ball forward in your stance the leading edge of the golf club will swing down into the ground directly under the golf ball. As the leading edge of the club makes contact with the ground and the bottom of the golf ball, the ball will climb up the clubface which subsequently lifts the ball in the air. The lifting motion impacts trajectory and backspin, the two key elements to pitching the golf ball softly around the green.


Gymnastics:  (Agility, Balance, Flexibility, Rhythm and Strength)

Acrobatic Gymnastics:

There are five types of events (women's and men's pairs, women's and men's group, involving three and four partners respectively, and mixed pairs). The sport combines dance, tumbling and partnering skills that involves dynamic (aerial) and balance (posed) movements.

 

Balance Beam:

A balance beam routine typically includes both a mount and a dismount of the beam, normally a flip depending on the level of competition. A mount may be as simple as climbing up on the beam, or as complicated as flipping onto it. Normally this involves some very difficult flips.

The performance routine last between 60 and 90 seconds, depending on the level of competition. The choreography of the routine typically includes acrobatic elements, turns, leaps and dance poses performed singularly or in combination.

 

The gymnast may compete barefoot or wear beam shoes if she so chooses. She may also chalk her hands and/or feet for added stability on the apparatus.

 

Once the performance has started, the gymnast's coach may not spot her or interfere in any way. The only time the gymnast may be accompanied on the podium is in the case of a mount involving a springboard. In this instance, the coach, or another athlete from the team, may quickly step in to remove the springboard from the area.

 

In the event of a fall, the athlete has ten seconds to remount the apparatus and continue the routine. If she does not return to the beam within this time limit, she is not permitted to continue

 

Also, during competition, there are no restrictions on choreography; however, the gymnast must fulfill several requirements set forth by the Code of Points. Among these requirements, gymnasts must successfully complete a 360 degree turn, a leap demonstrating a 180 degree leg split, and forward and backward acrobatic elements. Athletes must also complete a "flight series" -- a series of two or more linked acrobatic skills -- and a "mixed series" composed of two or more linked dance and acrobatic skills. Gymnasts may earn points by successfully executing difficult acrobatic elements, mounts, dismounts, leaps and jumps. They may also increase their scores by linking several elements together.

 

Horizontal Bar:

Mainly this is a men’s sport, the exhibinist typically wear grip gloves while performing on the bar. In completion, elements on horizontal bar are regulated by the code of points. A routine (sequence of 11-15 or more skills) usually includes giant swings with various grips (overgrip, undergrip, dorsal grip, mixed grip), in-bar work, turns, release/re-grasp skills, and a dismount. Generally, high bar is considered one of the most exciting gymnastics events due to the power gymnasts generate through giant (giants) swings and the impressive aerial releases and dismounts which often include multiple flips or twists.

 

Parallel Bars:

Traditionally performed by males “artistic gymnastics”. Two long parallel bars held above the floor, and are held parallel to each other. The bars are usually made of composites, plastic or wood material and the vertical members of the supporting framework are adjustable so the height of the bars above the floor and distance between the bars can be set optimally for each gymnast. Traditionally, in competition only male gymnasts perform on the Parallel bars. Gymnasts may optionally wear hand grip gloves when performing a routine on the parallel bars.

A routine performed on the parallel bars must include various elements that depend on the gymnast's competitive level. A typical performance will involve swinging skills in a support position (on the hands), a hanging position, and an upper arm position. The basic swings may be modified in order to execute various flips and turns. Also, parallel bar routines often feature a strength or static hold skill. Each routine ends with a dismount from either the ends of the bars or the side of the apparatus. A common dismount is a back off, in which the gymnast swings forward in a front support (between the bars) and then executes a backflip over one of the bars, landing in a standing position next to the apparatus.

 

Rings:

 

Still rings/ Is traditionally performed only by males due to its extreme upper-body strength requirements. The gymnastics consists of swing, strength and hold elements. Generally, gymnasts are required to fulfill various requirements including a swing to held handstand, an aerial dismount, and a static strength hold. More experienced gymnasts will often perform more than one strength element, sometimes swinging into hold positions or consecutively performing different holds. The performance of the Iron Cross is an example of supreme strength.

 

Flying rings/ The gymnast jumped or was lifted until he could grasp the rings; then an assistant pulled or pushed him, starting his swing. At the end of each arc the gymnast would do pikes, dislocates or front or back-uprises to build up height. A typical routine would show a number of "flying" dislocates or inlocates (a dislocate leading directly to a support above the rings or a handstand was called a flange). The performer might also do additional moves typical of the still rings while in flight, such as a flying cross. After several passes the routine would end with a (usually) spectacular dismount.

 

Men’s competition.

Men’s teams compete on six different apparatus, as follows:

Floor—Dance-type movements with acrobatic skills are performed on a mat 12 m (39.4 ft) square.

Pommel horse—Performed on a leather-covered apparatus, in the center of which are inserted two wooden pommels, or handles, 40 to 45 cm (15.8 to 17.7 in) apart, the routine consists of a series of continuous swinging and circular motions with the trunk and legs as the athlete travels from one end of the horse to the other, using only his hands for support.

Vault—The apparatus (horse), 1.6 m (5.3 ft) long and 1.35 m (4.4 ft) high, without pommels, is approached lengthwise. The athlete takes off from a springboard, places both hands on the surface of the horse, he then completes his flight with an acrobatic maneuver before making a controlled landing.

Parallel bars—Performed on two flexible parallel wooden rails 42 to 52 cm (16.5 to 20.5 in) apart, the routine is a series of swinging moves, balances, and changes in grip.

Horizontal bar—Performed on a single steel bar suspended 2.55 m (8.4 ft) above the floor mat, the routine requires continuous swinging and vaulting motions around the bar with frequent changes in direction and grip. In the dismount the athlete casts himself off the bar, soars through the air, and then makes a stable landing.

Still (motionless)  rings—The rings are suspended from straps and hung parallel to each other 2.55 m above the floor mat; gymnasts grasp one ring in each hand. The routine combines static positions with rapid movements that are designed to test strength and precision.

Women’s competition.

Women’s teams compete on four apparatus, as follows:

Vault—The routine is the same as in the men’s event, except that the “horse,” similar to that used by the men, is lowered to a height of 1.25 m (4.1 ft) and is approached sideways.

Uneven bars—performed on a set of two highly flexible oval wooden bars, the upper bar is 2.3 m (7.6 ft) from the floor and the lower bar, parallel to it, 1.5 m (4.9 ft) above the floor. The routine demands continuous swinging and vaulting over, under, and between the bars with a formal mount and dismount.

Balance beam—Performed on a single wooden beam 10 cm (3.9 in) wide, the routine consists of continuous tumbling moves, half-turns and full turns, and jumps and leaps. A formal dismount is required.

Floor—Performed on a floor mat 12 m (39.4 ft) square, the routine is quite similar to the men’s floor exercise, except that it is performed to music.

Rhythmic gymnastics.  (Dancelike movements)

Rhythmic gymnastics, still focused on women, combines the handling of small equipment with body movements and dance of varying types and difficulty. The emphasis is on beauty, grace, flexibility, and agility. Certain pre-acrobatic elements, such as rolls, are permitted (no more than three (3) per routine), providing the gymnast shows no flight. Handsprings and aerials are not permitted. Participation is either single competitors or pairs, trios or even more (generally five) manipulate one or two apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon.  Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport that combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, theatrical dance, and apparatus manipulation. The winner is the participant who earns the most points, as awarded by a panel of judges, for leaps, balances, pivots, flexibility, apparatus handling, and artistic effect.

Trampoline.

This discipline has competitions for both men and women. Performing on the Trampoline is informally known as “bouncing.”

The trampoline is an elevated webbed bed supported by springs within a metal frame. A regulation trampoline is 16.5 ft (5.03 m) long, 9.5 ft (2.9 m) wide, and 3.6 ft (1.10 m) high. The bed is made of nylon or string and is only about 6 mm (0.24 in) thick. The trampoline is surrounded by a safety platform, or a large thick mat, designed to cushion the impact of a fall.

Trampoline competition performance scores are based on difficulty and aesthetics. And are scored on a scale up to a 10.0. The high and low scores are deleted, and the middle three are added to compute the final score for the routine. The compulsory routine, in which skills must be performed in a specified order, is judged solely on aesthetics. In the optional routine, each skill (including multiple somersaults and twists) has a difficulty rating, with the total value of those skills added to the aesthetic total to determine the overall score for the routine. The maximum difficulty is 7.0, and skills may not be repeated within the routine.

A trampoline competition consists of one compulsory routine and one optional routine. Competitors are limited to eight contacts with the trampoline per routine. The 10-move routines may take as little as 30 seconds.

Men's rhythmic gymnastics is growing in some Countries; their participation is mostly directed in artistic gymnastics and wushu martial arts.

QT: In the 2nd Century bc, men and women of Crete developed the art of bull leaping. In bull leaping the performer would run toward a charging bull, grab its horns, and, upon being tossed into the air, execute various midair stunts before landing on the bull’s back, then dismount with a flip. This was the beginnings of modern day gymnastics.


Hiking:

Hiking is one of the fundamental outdoor activities on which many others are based. Many beautiful places can only be reached overland by hiking, and enthusiasts regard hiking as the best way to see nature. Hiking over long distances or over difficult terrain requires both the physical ability to do the hike and the knowledge of the route and its pitfalls.

Types & Related activities

·         Backpacking/Trekking is a multi-day, often arduous hike especially in mountainous regions

·         Free Hiking is off-trail hiking without clothes

·         Hiking refers to cross-country walking of a longer duration than a simple walk and usually over terrain where hiking boots are required. A day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day, often applied to mountain hikes to a lake or summit, but not requiring an overnight camp, in which case the term backpacking is used.

·         Thru-hiking is long-distance trail from end to end. The term is most commonly associated lengthy trails and long distance hikes, including the Appalachian Trail, the Pacific Crest Trail, and the Continental Divide Trail. Thru-hiking is also called "end-to-end hiking" or "end-to-ending" on some trailsHiking a trail from end to end

·         Waterfall hunting and waterfall hiking is hiking with the purpose of finding and enjoying waterfalls

·         Orienteering requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain. Participants are given a map, usually a specially prepared orienteering map, which they use to find control points. Also the participants are racing against a clock.

·         River Trekking is a combination of trekking and climbing and sometimes swimming along the river. It involves particular techniques like rock climbing, climbing and clinging on wet surfaces, this sport is particularly popular in Hong Kong and Taiwan,

·         Trailblazing is the practice of marking paths in outdoor recreational areas with blazes, markings that follow each other at certain — though not necessarily exactly defined — distances and mark the direction of the trail.

·         Extreme Day hike: Most of the "extreme" hikes described here will have an elevation gain of 4000 feet +, 14 miles round trip, and on a trail.  Shorter day hikes that are not  "extreme" are described on this site, especially if there is an unique aspect such as exotic, entertaining, scenic, or otherwise exciting.

Additionally, any hike to over 14,000 feet altitude, a "Forteener," is considered to be an extreme day hike due to two challenging factors:  Lack of oxygen and quick changing weather.  Even after acclimatization, some people do not cope well with the high altitude and become ill.   Secondly, the danger of an unexpected storms bringing heavy rain, snow, or thunderstorms is greater at higher altitudes.


The bare minimum to bring on a hike over 2 hours long is:

-Small daypack or fanny pack.
-Water* (At least 2 liters, preferably 3 or 4)
-Sunscreen

*Bring as much water as you can. A rule of thumb is 8 oz. for every hour you plan to be gone. If you bring an even number of bottles and strategically place them in your backpack or hang them on your clothes, you won’t even notice the extra weight. Remember this hiking tip; it could save your life!

Poison-oak, Poison-ivy and *Sumac (Leafs of three, let it be!) The hyphenated form "Poison-oak" is used, rather than "Poison Oak" to clearly indicate that it is not a variety of oak, just as "Poison-ivy" is not a variety of ivy.

*Poison sumac grows exclusively in very wet or flooded soils, usually in swamps and peat bogs in the eastern US & Canada.

In the U.S. Occasionally it grows as far west as southern Idaho.

 


If you're hiking in a region that has poison ivy, oak or sumac, make sure you are aware of what the plants look like and how to avoid them. If you have never suffered a reaction in the past, don't think you are immune, it can be the exact opposite. The oils that cause the rash can have a cumulative effect on your resistance. Sometimes it isn't until the third or fourth expose that some people develop symptoms. If you believe you may have been exposed to poison ivy, oak or sumac, taking immediate action can reduce the length and severity of an outbreak.

 

Pack light-weight

Most experienced hikers would never recommend trying to carry more than 1/3 of your weight. However, this assumes that you are in excellent physical condition and that the weight is distributed properly on a pack that fits you correctly. If you are 150 pounds, this means that you are carrying 50 pounds if you are carrying the maximum FSO. To truly enjoy your hike and to avoid exhaustion and injury, don't carry more than 25% of your body weight

Trekking Poles & Environmental issues:

Tips:

·         Do consider rubber tips, which cover the sharpest part of the steel point and prevent them from scarring rocks, while still maintaining decent traction.

·         Place poles carefully. Avoid easily scarred rocks, fragile trailside vegetation, and other hikers.

·         Place poles narrowly. Try to confine your pole tips to the established tread surface of the trail.

·         Use baskets. Tip baskets limit the depth to which the pole tips can penetrate the soil, reducing impact and the potential for erosion.

Trekking poles can add up to 20% efficiency to the body by transferring some of the load to your arms.  Even more significant is the stability the poles provide, greatly reducing the need for leg muscles to continually provide balance.  The chances of a sprained or broken ankle, being one of the worst examples of a hiker a long way from help, is greatly reduced by the use of poles. Stream crossings, wet rocks or logs, ice, loose rocks, and steep terrain are made safer.

 

A single walking stick is better than nothing, but is more awkward than two lightweight trekking poles.  Additionally, telescoping poles can be stowed in your daypack at times when they are not needed.  You can find some models that have shock absorbers built in, which allows less stress on the wrists when stroking hard with the poles. 

Necessities for a Safe hike

A hat can provide cooling in the summer, warmth in the snow, and protection from sun. (Wear the largest, lightest brim hat you can tolerate. It keeps you cooler and lessens the chance for skin cancer and skin wrinkles.)

Swiss army knife (multi-purpose

Flashlight plus spare batteries and bulb

Compass- and know how to use it

First Aid kit

Lighter or matches

Water flask, and water if needed

Water Purification tablets and/or filter (Giardia Lamblia and Cryptosporidium have set up shop in our wild places, traveling from mammalian intestines to pristine-looking streams through feces. Other contaminants include pesticides and herbicides )

Whistle

Food, and preferably with a low water content to keep the weight down (if water is readily available on the spot) Any number of things could keep you out longer than expected: a lengthy detour, getting lost, enjoying time by a stream, an injury, or difficult terrain

Plastic bags various types and sizes to keep things dry and pack things out. Ziploc bags are very practical because they are easily closed and opened.

Clothing- best worn in layers, so one can easily adapt to changing circumstances. So two thin sweaters make more sense than one thick one. Also, on overnight trips, keep one set of clothes dry for evenings and nights and put the day clothes back on before you start walking, even if they are wet. You will thank yourself for that during the next evening.

A warm up hat or cap - even when no cold weather is expected. Per weight and volume, this is the best insulator because a lot of body heat escapes through the head ("If your feet are cold, put on a hat").

Parka or Rain jacket- preferably either one that fits over the backpack or accompanied by a separate pack liner

Good boots, Blisters* are the curse of any hiker's existence. They can be avoided, however. Blisters are caused by moisture, heat, and friction against your skin. Wear boots or hiking shoes that fit properly. If you are hiking for an extended period of time, bring a change of socks. Switch pairs about halfway through your hike (or sooner, if your feet get wet during your trip). If you consciously decide to get wet during the trip -- by cooling off in a stream, for example -- be absolutely sure you thoroughly dry your feet before replacing your socks and boots.

Toilet Paper*

Sun Glasses and a high UV (sunscreen) cream or spray are both essential, especially above tree line. High altitude and summer time are brutal to the skin. Low altitude and any sun are brutal to the skin.  Put sunscreen on all days

Bug repellent

* Blister Prevention:

A study by US Army Medical researchers found:

That applying antiperspirant to your feet for several days before your hike, aided shoes or boots rubbing from against moist skin produce greater friction -- and blisters -- than the same friction against very dry or very wet skin, by enlisting the help of more than 600 cadets at the US Military Academy, West Point, New York. Some cadets received a 20% solution of aluminum chloride hexahydrate -- common ingredients in antiperspirant. Others received a placebo. All were instructed to apply the solution to their feet for five consecutive evenings. Then all were sent on a 13-mile hike. About 6 hours later, all cadets removed their boots and researchers examined their feet.  Their research conclusions, was that the cadets who used the antiperspirant on their feet had less than half as many blisters as those who did not. But the antiperspirant group were also much more likely to report other types of skin irritation.

 

This is a reasonable suggestion. But, one should always consider the use of any aluminum products as they are toxic and can lead to a variety of problems later on. Washing the feet with a good soap and then applying some white vinegar, adding a couple of drops of any essential oil if you like. Although the vinegar smell dissipates quickly.

 

 *Catholes: "Leave No Trace." Human waste produces environmental impact from hikers, as well as can contaminate the watershed and make other hikers ill. 10 inches) deep, depending on local soil composition and covering after use. If at all possible, catholes should be dug at least 60 m (200 feet) away from water sources and trails; the risk of contamination is minimized.

 

SLEEPING BAGS:


With fall here and winter just around the corner, nothing can make an overnight backpacking trip less enjoyable than having the wrong sleeping bag.

Most sleeping bags sold today come with a temperature rating. You should only take the rating as a suggestion and not an absolute value. Also, only compare temperature ratings within a manufacturer’s line: a 25 degree rating for one manufacturer may be a 35 degree rating for another.

Mummy style sleeping bags are the warmest style sleeping bags available because they have less air inside to heat. You can also pull the hood over your head to help warm the interior of the bag and retain your body heat.

And finally, don’t forget about your sleeping pad. The warmest sleeping bag will do you no good if you don’t have an insulating barrier between you and the cold ground. During the coldest months consider using two open celled sleeping pads stacked on top of each other.

 

Hiking with Children:  

The best hikes with children are short, interesting hikes that keep the children interested and make them want to come back outdoors again. Remember, you should gear the hike to your youngest child's abilities. A child aged 2 to 4 can only hike about 1/2 mile to a mile or two, and a 6-10 year old can cover about 3 miles, so don't expect them to hike for hours like an adult.

Kids like to stop every few minutes to rest and explore, plan for breaks about every 15 to 20 minutes. Pick easy, flat trails, especially in the beginning, and leave the strenuous trails for their older years.

Another way to keep the children's interest is to take self-guided nature hikes, where they follow a map and find different locations on the map. This keeps them interested, and they'll learn about the natural world at the same time. The best hikes with children are the hikes that make them want to go back and do it again!

 

SLEEPING OVERNIGHT ON THE TRAIL


A few quick tips for doing an over stay. These tips are more about your comfort and less about gear needed: that is an entirely different discussion.

·         Take along camp clothes; something different to sleep in then what you hike in.

·         Eat a small snack before you go to bed; it will keep you warmer at night.

·         Keep a bottle of water handy; makes night time thirst easier to quench.

·         Keep a flashlight nearby; for animals invading your camp and all that water you drank throughout the night.

Tent Care

 

Here are a few things to keep in mind.

·         Seal Your Seams - Make sure you seal all of your seams. Once you apply the seam sealer, let it dry for 24 hours, and then set up your tent under a water sprinkler. Even if the manufacturer says that you don’t need to seal the seams, test your tent just to make sure.

·         Dry your Tent - As soon as you get home, hang your tent or set it up inside until it is 100% dry. This prevents mildew which will cause your tent to stink and also remove the water-repellant coating.

·         Do not put away a Wet Tent - If you can avoid it, hang your wet tent and allow it to dry before stuffing it in its sack. If you can’t avoid stuffing it wet, make sure you remove it and dry it as soon as possible.

·         Use a Ground Cloth - This will prevent wear and tear on the floor of the tent. Make sure the ground cloth is just slightly smaller than the tent foot print to avoid water channeling underneath the tent if it rains.

 

Q.T  Reminder

 

Don't over pack. Don't under pack. Learn from experience what to bring on an outing.

 

Be aware how loudly you are talking on a hike. Your voice can carry farther than you think.

 

Always carry a small flashlight when hiking. In cases of miscalculations of time & distance it could be invaluable when stuck in the woods in dwindling light. Check the batteries beforehand to make sure they are working.

 

Cellular phones can help in an emergency. If you own one, bring it along. Leave it switched off until you need to use it in an emergency.

 

Always sign trail registers. This could save your live if you get lost. This information is also used by park officials to determine trail use and conditions.

 

Be prepared for changes in weather. It's not uncommon for the temperature to be below 50° when you start out and 75° later in the day. Wear clothing in layers that can adapt to changing temperatures. Consider how much space discarded clothing takes up in your backpack

 

Your thirst is not a good gauge of how much water your body needs. Bring a minimum of two quarts of liquids for a warm weather hike. Three quarts would be better

 

Play it safe, be aware of your surroundings, both on the ground and in the sky.

 

The Up’s & Down’s of hiking.

Hiking up steep uphills:

One mistake people make when climbing the hills is to get up on their toes, DON”T. Keep your heels down, this will stretch out your calf muscles and Achilles tendons, reducing cramping and strains and it will keep all or most of your boots soles on the ground where they belong. Slow your pace by shortening your steps, don’t try to race up the hill, you’ll tire quicker.

Steep downhill:

As with uphill, shorten your stride, slow the pace. Bend your knees slightly to lower your center of gravity downward but not back. Too much leaning back will see your feet sliding out because your weight will be behind you, not over your boots where it should be. Done correctly you’ll find the quadriceps or upper leg muscles take the brunt of the load. Keep your toes pointed down for the best grip and stability. Most hiking boots are designed to have dirt and mud build up behind ridges on the soles and thus work best pointing straight ahead.

Off-angle or Traverses:

Often a trail paralleling a slope or ridgeline will angle down on one side. Usually leaning the upper body a little more over the uphill foot can help but for some awkward sections it may be easier to turn the feet sideways so the toes point down the off angle and then sidestep the trail for a short distance. This extreme is rare and only for serious odd angles, washouts or more often foot bridges and boardwalks that may have settled on one side.

Rocky Trails & Crossings:

When rocks and tree roots stick up out of the trail it is once again time to slow down. A little more care and focus will see you through. Keep eyes focused a few feet ahead of you and look through or past obstacles, looking at them will usually promote walking into them. The same can be said for log and bridge crossings, focus on the log a few feet ahead and walk with an even pace; don’t look down into the water as it can cause disorientation. Lastly, always cross one at a time, two or more people on a log can cause it to bounce or sway.

 


Hunting:

--Safe Hunting Is No Accident--

Quick Fact: A rifle is designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting spin around an axis corresponding to the orientation of the weapon

A Real Hunter Will:

Portray good hunting ethics.

Communicate and teach other hunters.

Search for an arrow hit or bullet hit animal that is wounded for as long as possible.

Not take a chance at shooting an animal that is out of range or take a shot that is bad or unmanageable.

Assist a fellow hunter who needs help tracking a hit or wounded animal.

Promote a fair chase and ethical hunting standards and abide by the rules of fair chase.

Follow and obey the laws of both local and state governments determined by the Department of Natural Resources

Display and give respect to any animal taken.

Promote hunting to younger hunters and take youngsters hunting whenever permitted. The most basic purpose of a hunter education course is to teach safe, responsible firearm handling in the field, in the vehicle, and in the home after hunting.

Transport deer correctly and display taken game respectfully to non hunters.

Popular shotgun actions for hunting:

Single-shot firearms used for hunting generally fall into three categories:

Quick fact:  Deer establish a territory and will not leave it. Deer are known to starve rather than leave their domain.

Typically game animals are divided into several categories for regulatory purposes.

 

Typical categories, along with example species, are as follows:

 

Big game: White-tailed deer, mule deer, moose, elk, reindeer (caribou), bear, bighorn sheep, pronghorn, boar, javelina as well as exotic species, usually found at hunting ranches.

 

Small Game: rabbit, hare, squirrel, oppossum, raccoon

 

Furbearers: beaver, red fox, mink, pine martin, must rat, bobcat

 

Predators: cougar (mountain lion/panther), coyote

 

Upland game bird: grouse, turkey, chukar, pheasant, bobwhite quail, dove

 

Waterfowl: ducks including mallard, geese including Canada goose

 

                                    

Some Hunting Methods used:

-Baiting is the use of decoys, lures, scent.

-Beagling is the use of beagles in hunting rabbits and sometimes in hunting foxes.

-Blind or stand hunting is waiting for animals from a concealed or elevated position

-Calling is the use of animal noises to attract or drive animals

-Dogs may be used to course or to help flush, herd, drive, track, point at, pursue or retrieve prey

-Driving is the herding of animals in a particular direction, usually toward another hunter in the group

-Flushing is the practice of scaring animals from concealed areas

-Glassing is the use of optics (such as binoculars) to more easily locate animals

-Glue is an indiscriminate passive form to kill birds

-Netting, including active netting with the use of cannon nets and rocket nets

-Persistence hunting is the use of running and tracking to pursue the prey to exhaustion.

-Scouting includes a variety of tasks and techniques for finding animals to hunt

-Spotlighting or shining is the use of artificial light to find or blind animals before killing

-Stalking or still hunting is the practice of walking quietly, in search of animals or in pursuit of an individual animal

-Tracking is the practice of reading physical evidence in pursuing animals

-Trapping is the use of devices (snares, pits, deadfalls) to capture or kill an animal

Carry the Right Equipment


Survival starts before your hunt — prepare your gear with the possibility of being stranded or injured. At a minimum, carry a knife, fire starting material (I recommend at least two forms of flame — waterproof matches, windproof lighter, for example — and enough tinder to start several fires), signal whistle and mirror, flashlight or headlamp with extra batteries, rope or parachute cord, a method to collect and purify water, basic energy foods, extra compass, shelter material (a small tarp, poncho, or even 5- mil painter’s plastic), and first-aid kit.

 

A closed season is a term used to describe a time during which hunting an animal of a given species is contrary to law

Choosing the right weapon for firearms hunting is essential to success in your pursuit. Arguably the most popular weapon used in firearms hunts is the rifle. And there are plenty of variables to consider when hunting with a rifle. As you check out the hunting rifles on offer, consider its fit, sight, weight and action

 

Poaching is illegal hunting, and punishable.

Shooting range terms

Archery: The shooting of arrows or bolts from a bow.

Backstop: A device constructed to stop or redirect bullets fired on a range. This is usually an earthen structure, placed between 16 and 20 feet in vertical height, built in accordance with NRA recommended standards.

Baffles: Barriers to contain bullets and to reduce, re-direct or suppress sound waves and possible stray bullets. Baffles are placed either overhead, alongside or at ground level to restrict or interrupt errant or off target shots. A special baffle referred to as an eyebrow can be placed at the firing line to provide cover and minimize problems caused by double firing, or they can be placed atop backstops to ensure on-site containment of all fired rounds.

Berm: An embankment used between shooting ranges to divide them, or positioned to restrict bullets to a specific area. These are built to establish shooting lanes, and are usually 8 to 12 feet in vertical height.

Bullet trap: A device designed to trap or capture entire bullets or fragments versus redirecting the projectile into a water body, wetland or earthen backstop.

Firing distance: The distance between the firing line and the target line.

Firing line: A line parallel to the targets, from behind which firearms are discharged. Firing Range: (1) A facility designed for the purpose of providing a place on which to discharge firearms, shoot air guns and/or archery equipment; (2) May refer to several ranges constructed together, referred to as a complex or firing range complex.

Handgun: A term used to describe pistols, either auto-loading, single shot or cylinder types held in either one or two hands.

Impact Area: The area behind a target on a backstop or bullet trap, where bullets are expected to impact. This term may also refer to an area down range at an outdoor range where bullets will impact if not captured by a backstop.

Line of site: An imaginary straight line from the eye through the sights of a firearm to the target.

Misfire: Failure of a bullet cartridge to discharge after the firearm's firing pin has struck the primer. Also referred to as a hangfire.

Pistol: A firearm capable of being held, aimed and fired with one hand. Also known as a revolver or hand gun. Plinking: Informal shooting of any kind at inanimate objects.

Range: The distance traveled by a projectile from a firearm to the final point of impact. Three terms apply to range: "point blank", "effective" and "maximum". For the purposes of shooting range design, point blank refers to distances of five yards or less, effective range means the greatest distance a projectile will travel with accuracy, maximum range means the maximum distance a projectile will travel.

Rifle: (1) A modern firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, generally having a barrel more than 15 inches long. Its main characteristic is a rifled (knurled grooved) barrel that imparts a spin to a single projectile as it travels through the bore. (2) Some rifles designed for military or law enforcement use will have a pistol grip in lieu of a shoulder stock.

Safety rules and regulations: Standards used in the operation of a shooting range. Safety rules and regulations are set up to govern the method of range operation to include health and safety procedures that must be followed throughout the facility. Violation of range rules and regulations generally carries penalties such as suspension or banishment from a range for future use.

Safety baffles: Vertical or sloping barriers designed to prevent a projectiles from traveling into an undesired area or direction. Most often used to prevent bullets from leaving the shooting range.

Shotgun: (1) A firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a smoothbore barrel that fires shotshells possessing a varying number if round pellets. (2) Some barrels are designed to be used with rifled slugs, most generally having smooth-bores, but in rare cases may be rifled. Law enforcement and military shotguns may have a pistol grip in lieu of a shoulder stock.

Shotshell: A shotshell designed to be used in shotguns. It is composed of a hull or shell, a primer, powder, shot cup or wad and shot. Shells are normally composed of paper or plastic.

Small arms: Firearms that may be discharged by one person, versus artillery pieces. Small arms are not subject to precise definitions, but the term generally refers to rifles, pistols, shotguns, submachine guns and machine guns.

Small bore: An NRA-sanctioned shooting event using .22 rimfire rifles and bullets on bulls eye targets.

Target line: A line parallel to the firing line along which targets are placed. Trajectory: The path a projectile travels from the muzzle to the point of final impact.

Velocity: The speed at which a projectile travels (usually measured and reported in feet per second or meters per second)


Quick Fact:  Deer can live up to 11 years in the wild.


Ice Skating:

Types of Ice Skates

·Figuring Skates (Omni-directional type skate blade)

·Ice Hockey Skates (Omni-directional skates-blade is same length as boot)

·Speed Skate (Forward fast moving type blade, flat bottom)

 Ice Skating jumps (basic)

·Axel Jump

·Flip Jump

·Loop Jump

·Lutz Jump

· Salchow Jump

·Toe Loop Jump

Figure Skating:     

Figure eights, loops, circles, brackets, all of these terms mean just one thing: the basis of which this sport began. Being able to control your edges at all times means that your jumps, spins and footwork will be much more solid. A tool called the “scribe” which is really a large compass is used to make a tracing onto the ice that you follow. With practice, one should be able to do the same figure three times in a row in the exact same spot.

Moves in the field are a name given to elements of figure skating that emphasize basic skating skills and edge control. In the context of a competitive program, moves in the field include spirals, spread eagles, Ina Bauers, hydro-blading, and similar extended edge moves. The U.S. Figure Skating Association requires each skater to pass a Moves in the Field  (MIF) test (3-turn, Bracket Turn, Choctaw Turn,  Counter Turn, Crossover, Mohawk Turn, Rocker Turn and a Twizzle), as well as a free skating or free dance test, in order to qualify for the various levels of competition. The skater must perform each field move in the specified pattern while demonstrating adequate power, quickness, edge control, and extension throughout the pattern to be accepted into the level.

Ice Dancing:

Ice dancing requires two figure skaters working together, meant to be an example of ballroom dancing, yet taking place on the ice.  As with all types of pairs skating, there is a need to choreograph the routine, making sure the movement is fluid and natural. Unlike many forms of figure skating, ice dancing is not meant to include a number of gymnastic style moves and plunges.  The objective behind ice dancing is to present a graceful and entertaining routine that could easily be moved to a ballroom floor and still be performed with similar results. To that end, ice dancers need accompanying music that has a steady beat, which is also a difference with other forms of pairs skating

Freestyle:  


Axels, those other triple and double jumps with the odd names, and spins, is called Freestyle. It’s generally the most common type that people associate when they link skating. All freestyle skating is performed to music. Sometimes the music contains lyrics, oftentimes it doesn’t. In amateur skating, i.e. Olympic eligible, skaters can only use instrumental music. But when an amateur skater does an exhibition or an officially sanctioned event, lyrics can be used. Freestyle skating is more than just being able to do triple jumps and a variety of spins. Footwork, the connection of various skating steps, strong edges, and the ability to do spirals [like ballet’s arabesques] and other graceful and/or dynamic static moves is important.

Pairs:

Pairs are designed for those who wish to perform jumps and spins, just not alone. Pairs can allow for more innovative skating moves such as the death spiral and the loop lift, and it can test your timing when you’re required to do side by side jumps and spins.

Synchronized skating completion:

Synchronized skating is a team sport where a group of eight to 20 ice skaters perform a routine together. The group must move as one, performing intricate steps and formations on the ice that include spins, pair moves, lifts, circles, wheels, intersections, and other difficult movements. Each member of the team must be a strong figure skater, capable of performing complex steps with ease and confidence. The team skates to music, flowing through seamless formations as they move in unison Teams who compete in the U.S. can participate in 15 different levels of competition. This is determined by the ages and abilities of the skating teams. Using teamwork, advanced skating skills, complex formations, and speed, the skaters work together to create a constantly flowing routine on the ice.

Speed Skating:

Long track speed skating, short track speed skating, inline speed skating, marathon speed skating and quad speed skating can be done with individual start, as in long track speed skating or in time trial races of inline skating, where a maximum of four skaters start at the same time. Skaters are timed, and the times are compared at the end. Races may also be held with a mass start, as is done in marathon skating, tour skating, short track skating or in most roller skating events. The first skater to cross the finish line wins, though there may be a series of eliminating heats where finishing among the top fraction of the participants is enough to advance in the competition.

(ISU): International Skating Union

Designated Championship Events:

Speed skating:

·World All-round Speed Skating Championships

·World Single Distances Speed Skating Championships World Sprint Speed Skating Championships

· World Sprint Speed Skating Championships

·World Junior Speed Skating Championships

·World Short Track Speed Skating Championships

·World Short Track Speed Skating Team Championships

· World Junior Short Track Speed Skating Championships

· European Speed Skating Championships

·European Short Track Speed Skating Championships.

Figure skating:


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Lacrosse:

Men's field lacrosse is played with ten players on each team: a goalkeeper; three defenders in the defensive end; three midfielders free to roam the whole field; and three attackers attempting to score goals in the offensive end. It is the most common version of lacrosse played internationally. The modern game was codified in Canada in 1856.

 Major League Lacrosse

 MLL Logo

Is a professional men's field lacrosse league that is made up of five teams in the United States and one team in Canada

Teams.

Boston Cannons

Chicago Machine

Denver Outlaws

Long Island Lizards

Toronto Nationals

Washington Bay Hawks

 

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National Lacrosse League

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/d/d8/NLL.png/100px-NLL.png

Is the league of men's indoor lacrosse in North America. It currently has 12 teams; 3 in Canada and 9 in the United States. Unlike other lacrosse leagues which play in the summer, the NLL plays its games in the winter

Teams:

Boston Blazers

Buffalo Bandits

Calgary Roughnecks

Colorado Mammoth

Edmonton Rush

Minnesota Swarm

New York Titans

Philadelphia Wings

Portland LumberJax

Rochester Knighthawks

San Jose Stealth

Toronto Rock

 


Motorcycling: 

Motorcycle travel is a great way to see the country. You can soak up the fresh air and sunshine as you drive down the highway. You have a much greater sense of being a part of yourself you enjoy the outdoors; motorcycle travel is a great way to see the country. You can soak up the fresh air and sunshine as you drive down the highway. You have a much greater sense of being a part of your surroundings while riding a motorcycle. You feel you can almost reach out and touch the beauty of roadside flowers, trees and wildlife.

There is also a special feeling of freedom and exhilaration that comes from racing down the highway with the power of the engine roaring between your legs and the wind in your face. That feeling cannot be matched with any other form of travel. You feel you can almost reach out and touch the beauty of roadside flowers, trees and wildlife.

There is also a special feeling of freedom and exhilaration that comes from racing down the highway with the power of the engine roaring between your legs and the wind in your face. That feeling cannot be matched with any other form of travel.

A motorcyclist

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QT: Gottlieb Daimler built the first modern (actually, it had wooden wheels) motorcycle, called an Einspur in 1884; it had 2 outriggers with wheels for stability.

Different types of motorcycling:

  1. Pleasure Riding - This type of riding is characterized by non-competitive riding alone or in a group and is confined to distances generally not exceeding 125 miles or so and no overnight stays.
  2. Touring - A form of pleasure riding, touring is characterized by covering long distances and spanning a number of days with overnight stays. They provide lots of suspension travel and upright postures that are comfortable for lengthy rides They often have backrests, large windscreens, and comforts such as radios.
  3. Trail Riding - Another form of motorcycle riding that takes place off-road, usually with motorcycles specialized for handling the rigors of natural terrain.
  4. Competition - competitive events pitting the skills of on rider with his or her machine against another.

There are 3 classes in the national hill climb events:

• 0-450cc
• 450-700cc
• Open Exhibition class (701cc – plus)

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Mountain Climbing

Mountaineering

Avoid risky conditions!

Mountain climbing is about challenge and perseverance, about putting hands and feet onto rocks and ice and snow and finally reaching a summit. It is also sometimes known as alpinism, particularly in Europe. While it began as an all-out attempt to reach the highest point of unclimbed mountains, it has branched into specializations addressing different aspects of mountains and may now be said to consist of three aspects: rock-craft, snow-craft and skiing, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow or ice.

 

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The Worlds Seven Summits: in order

1.    Asia: Mount Everest 29,035 feet (8850 meters)

2.    South America: Aconcagua 22,829 feet (6962 meters)

3.    North America: Denali (aka Mount McKinley) 20,320 feet (6194 meters)

4.    Africa: Kilimanjaro 19,340 feet (5895 meters)

5.    Europe: Mount Elbrus 18,510 feet (5642 meters)

6.    Antarctica: Mount Vinson 16,067 feet (4897 meters)

 

As you move on the mountain you should always be aware of:

·         What have the weather conditions been over the past few days? Recent heavy snows?

·         Can you observe any wind loading on the slopes?

·         If a slope looks suspect, are there alternative routes?

·         Do you have a good sense of the snowpack? Have you performed any snowpit or shear tests?

·         Have you noticed many fracture lines, heard "whumping" or cracking sounds, or hollow noises in the snowpack?

·         Are you keeping an eye on the orientation and steepness of the slopes as you cross them?

·         Are you lingering in gullies, bowls, or valleys?

·         Noticed any recent avalanche activity on other slopes similar to the one you are on?

Extra precautions to take

·         If there is no alternative to crossing a suspect slope, do so one person at a time to minimize risk.

·         When descending or ascending a slope, try to stay as far to the sides of a potential avalanche chute as possible to decrease your chances of being caught if an avalanche runs.

·         Be aware of the condition of those in your party. If someone is tired, hungry, or cold they may not be using their best judgement.

·         Remain constantly aware of changing weather or temperature conditions, particularly if your outing will last more than a few hours.

·         Consider avalanche rescue equipment, such as beacons, ski-pole probes, and collapsible shovels, as a necessary part of your backcountry gear.

Commonly used knots

A number of knots are required for traditional climbing, to create anchors, to tie in the climbers and even to be used during the climb.

 

There are many types of avalanche, but two types are of the most concern:

 

  1. Slab avalanche

This type of avalanche occurs when a plate of snow breaks loose and starts sliding down; these are the largest and most dangerous.

    1. Hard slab avalanche

This type of avalanche is formed by hard-packed snow in a cohesive slab. The slab will not break up easily as it slides down the hill, resulting in large blocks tumbling down the mountain.

    1. Soft slab avalanche

This type of avalanche is formed again by a cohesive layer of snow bonded together, the slab tends to break up more easily.

  1. Loose snow avalanche

This type of avalanche is triggered by a small amount of moving snow that accumulates into a big slide. Also known as a "wet slide or point release" avalanche. This type of avalanche is deceptively dangerous as it can still knock a climber or skier off their feet and bury them, or sweep them over a cliff into a terrain trap.

 

Dangerous slides are most likely to occur on the same slopes preferred by many skiers: long and wide open, few trees or large rocks, 30 to 45 degrees of angle, large load of fresh snow, soon after a big storm, on a slope 'lee to the storm'. Solar radiation can trigger slides as well. These will typically be a point release or wet slough type of avalanche. The added weight of the wet slide can trigger a slab avalanche. Ninety percent of reported victims are caught in avalanches triggered by themselves or others in their group.

 

When going off-piste or traveling in alpine terrain, parties are advised to always carry:

 

  1. Probe
  2. Shovel (retrieving victims with a shovel instead of your hands is five times faster)
  3. Avalanche beacon

Concerning Weather:

The primary dangers caused by bad weather centre around the changes it causes in snow and rock conditions, making movement suddenly much more arduous and hazardous than under normal circumstances.

Visibility in blizzard conditions.

Whiteouts make it difficult to retrace a route while rain may prevent taking the easiest line only determined as such under dry conditions. In a storm the mountaineer who uses a compass for guidance has a great advantage over a merely empirical observer. In large snow-fields it is, of course, easier to go wrong than on rocks, but intelligence and experience are the best guides in safely navigating objective hazards.

Summer thunderstorms may produce intense lightning. If a climber happens to be standing on or near the summit, they risk being struck. There are many cases where people have been struck by lightning while climbing mountains. In most mountainous regions, local storms develop by late morning and early afternoon. Many climbers will get an "alpine start"; that is before or by first light so as to be on the way down when storms are intensifying in activity and lightning and other weather hazards are a distinct threat to safety. High winds can speed the onset of hypothermia, as well as damage equipment such as tents used for shelter.

Rock climbing:

Here Climbers climb up or across natural rock formations or man-made rock walls with the goal of reaching the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route. Rock climbing is similar to scrambling (another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations), but climbing is generally differentiated by its need for the use of the climber's hands to hold his or her own weight and not just provide balance.

Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber's strength, endurance, agility, and balance along with his or her mental control. It can be a dangerous sport and knowledge of proper climbing method and the usage of specialized climbing equipment which is crucial for the safe completion of routes. Because of the wide range and variety of rock formations around the world rock climbing has been separated into several different styles

Styles of climbing:

Most of the climbing done in modern times is considered free climbing -- climbing using one's own physical strength with equipment used solely as protection and not as support -- as opposed to aid climbing, the gear-dependent form of climbing that was dominant in the sport's earlier days. Free climbing is typically divided into several styles that differ from one another depending on the equipment used and the configurations of their belay, rope, and anchor systems (or the lack thereof).

·         Bouldering is a style of climbing emphasizing power, strength, and dynamics. Its focus is on individual moves or short sequences of moves, which generally demand more endurance over longer stretches of rock where the difficulty of individual moves is not as great. Boulder routes are commonly referred to as “problems” because the nature of the climb is often short, curious, and is much like problem solving. Sometimes these problems are eliminates, meaning certain artificial restrictions are imposed. To reduce the risk of injury from a fall, climbers rarely go higher than 3-5 meters above the ground. Anything over 7 meters is generally considered to be free-soloing, although such climbs might also be termed high-ball bouldering problems. For further protection, climbers typically put a bouldering mat (crash pad) on the ground to break their fall. Further, climbers often have one or more spotters who work to direct the climber's body toward the crash pad during a fall, while protecting the climber's head from hazards.

Equipment:

One of the major appeals of bouldering is its relatively scant equipment requirements. It is not uncommon to see people bouldering with shoes, a chalkbag, and a small mat to wipe their feet on. Although nothing is actually required, common equipment includes:

Equipment for Rappelling (Abseiling "to rope down" in German)

 

*Belayer: As the climber moves on the climb, the belayer must remove the slack from the rope by paying out or pulling in excess rope. If the climber falls, then they will free-fall the distance of the slack or unprotected rope before friction applied by the belayer will start to slow their descent. It is extremely important for the belayer to concentrate on the climber's situation, as their role is crucial for the climber's safety.

 

** A Prusik is a friction hitch or knot used to put a loop of cord around a rope

 

*** The Munter hitch, also known as the Italian hitch, is a simple knot, commonly used by climbers and cavers as part of a life-lining or belay system.

To date, Gangkhar Puensum in Bhutan (located on the Tibet & Bhutan border) is the 40th highest mountain in the world; and the highest unclimbed mountain in the world, due to spiritual beliefs and customs


Racing (Off-Road) 

Nascar:  (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing)

Stock Car Auto Racing

Consists of only street vehicles that can be bought by general public, is sometimes now called Street Stock, Pure Stock, Showroom Stock, or U-Car racing. The first showroom stock racing series began in 1972, with a price ceiling on the cars of $3,000. Some modern showroom stock racing allows safety modifications done on showroom stock cars. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring approximately ¼ mile to 2.66 miles (about 400 meters to 4.2 kilometers) in length, but are also raced on road courses. Nascar is the world's largest governing body for stock car racing

Super Stock classes are similar to street stock, but allow for more modifications to the engine. Power output is usually in the range of 500-550 horsepower

The most famous event in the series is the Daytona 500 an annual 500-mile race at Daytona Beach, Florida. The series' second-biggest event is arguably The Brickyard 400, an annual 400-mile race held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the legendary home of the Indy 500.

Stock car races take place predominantly on oval tracks of 3 or 4 turns, with all turns to the left. Oval tracks are classified as short track (less than 1 mile), intermediate or speedway (1 to 2 miles) or superspeedway (over 2 miles). Road courses are any tracks having both left and right turns.

Drag Racing

NHRA (National Hot Rod Association)

John Kilgore Racing Transmissions

Several measurements are taken for each race: reaction time, elapsed time, and speed. Reaction time is the time from the green light illuminating to the vehicle leaving the starting line. Elapsed time is the time from the vehicle leaving the starting line to crossing the finish line. Speed is measured through a speed trap near the finish line, indicating the approximate maximum speed of the vehicle during the run.

There are literally hundreds of different classes in drag racing, each with different requirements and restrictions on things such as weight, engine size, body style, modifications, and many others. NHRA and IHRA share some of these classes, but many are solely used by one sanctioning body or the other

Other classes:

Glossary


Rafting:

Water Tubing: (inner tubes/ Tubing or Toobing)

Tubing on water generally consists of two forms: towed and free-floating, also known as river tubing.

 

Towed tubing usually takes place on large bodies of water such as lakes and rivers. One or more tube riders ("tubers") tether their tubes to a power boat. The riders are then towed through the water by the watercraft.

 

In free-floating tubing, the tube riders are untethered and often conveyed by the current of a river. Most people paddle with their hands to steer, others using small oars. Without steering, you generally float towards the bank of the river. Tubers usually congregate in groups, tying their tubes together creating a large floating group.

The other option is doing your tubing at *lazy rivers or wave pools at waterparks where they have man-made torrents. The waves push riders (who are on rafts, as they are in a regular lazy river) around the river faster than they would be traveling in a regular lazy river. Some of these are indoors.

Tubes for use as towables on water are generally not true inner tubes but rather specially designed tubes for the purpose of recreation. These tubes are often fairly durable and come in either donut or disk shapes. A sleeve of synthetic fabric often covers the tube to prevent it from becoming elongated during towing. Such sleeves commonly have handles for the rider to grasp and an anchoring point for the tow line to be attached at.

*Shallow pool that flows similarly to a river.

White Water Rafting:

The most common raft is the symmetrical raft steered with a paddle at the stern. Other types are the asymmetrical, rudder-controlled raft and the symmetrical raft with central helm (oars). Rafts are usually propelled with ordinary paddles and typically hold 4 to 12 persons.

Whitewater rafting can be a dangerous sport, especially if basic safety precautions are not observed. Both commercial and private trips have seen their share of injuries and fatalities, though private travel has typically been associated with greater risk. Depending on the area, legislated safety measures may exist for rafting operators. These range from certification of outfitters, rafts, and raft leaders, to more stringent regulations about equipment and procedures. It is generally advisable to discuss safety measures with a rafting operator before signing on for a trip. The equipment used and the qualifications of the company and raft guides are essential information to be considered.

Risks in whitewater rafting stem from both environmental dangers and from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained consistently so despite the passage of time. These would include "keeper hydraulics", "strainers" (e.g. fallen trees), dams (especially low-head dams, which tend to produce river-wide keeper hydraulics), undercut rocks, and of course dangerously high waterfalls. Rafting with experienced guides is the safest way to avoid such features. Even in safe areas, however, moving water can always present risks -- such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment. Irresponsible behavior related to rafting while intoxicated has also contributed to many accidents.

Rafting trips often begin with safety presentations to educate customers about problems that may arise.

 

White Water classes:

·         Class 1: Very small rough areas, requires no maneuvering. (Skill Level: None)
Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require maneuvering.(Skill Level: Basic Paddling Skill)
Class 3: Whitewater, small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering.(Skill Level: Experienced paddling skills)
Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. (Skill Level: Whitewater Experience)
Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering (Skill Level: Advanced Whitewater Experience)
Class 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous as to be effectively un-navigable on a reliably safe basis. Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of almost all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a dramatically increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes. (Skill Level: Successful completion of a Class 6 rapid without serious injury or death is widely considered to be a matter of great luck or extreme skill)


Roller Skating (In-line & Quad Roller Skates)

Roller skates and roller blades differ in their wheel arrangements. Roller skates utilize four corners (quads) of wheels on the bottom of the skate. Roller (in-line skates)  blade wheels are aligned on the middle of the foot, from the heel to the toe, in a straight line of three, four or five wheels.

The wheels on roller skates and roller blades offer different possibilities and different styles of skating. The four wheels on roller skates are in position for the best stability and balance. They are thick wheels, while roller blades, also called in-line skates, have wheels geared for speed. The straight design of in-line skates also allows for quicker turning. Their design was meant to mimic ice skating, and the less stable design with taller, thinner wheels usually results in more injuries.

Another difference in roller skates and roller blades are the stoppers. Roller skate stoppers are round and positioned on the front of the shoe, at the toe. These stoppers require the skaters to raise their heels and tip their toes forward to stop. Roller blade stoppers are rectangle and generally positioned at the rear of the skate, near the heel. To stop on roller blades, the wearer simply has to do the opposite of roller skates: lift the toes and slant the heel into the ground until the stopper meets the surface of the floor or ground.

Beginning about 1980 In-line skates became the rage. They have their wheels, or rollers, arranged in a single line and afford the skater more stability.

Got your skate key? Do you know what it is?

In times past (prior to 1972) anyone who skated had to have one. In those days (since about 1915) you turned a  rod with the skate key, the two clamps on either side of the front of the skate shoe could be loosened to 1) set your shoe down into the skate, and 2) the clamps could be tightened until they encircled the edges of your shoe sole. and it required a “skate key” to perform the task. You were out of luck, if you did not have one. Normally the key was carried with the skater around the neck on a rope or chain.


Rowing:

Canoeing:

Rowing is one of the few non-weight bearing sports that exercise all the major muscle groups, including quads, biceps, triceps, lats, gluts and abdominal muscles. Rowing improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. High-performance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athlete's increased power tends to be more significant.

Rowing is a low impact activity with movement only in defined ranges, so that twist and sprain injuries are rare. However, the repetitive rowing action can put strain on knee joints, the spine and the tendons of the forearm, and inflammation of these are the most common rowing injuries. If one rows with poor technique, they will surely pay with pain.

           Collegiate rowing is sometimes referred to as crew.

On a canoe, if they utilize a spraydeck, it is secured to the outside of the hull with string or cords to a webbing specifically installed for this purpose. Further, on a canoe, it is not only a safety item but may also be used for comfort. During rainy or cold weather, it keeps the lower body of the canoe(s) dry and warm, and prevents rain from building up a puddle at the bottom of the boat.

Kayaking: ("man's boat" or "hunter's boat").

Modern kayaks have evolved into numerous specialized types, that may be broadly categorized according to their application as sea kayaks, whitewater (or river) kayaks, surf kayaks, and racing kayaks (flat water, white water, or slalom), though many hybrid types exist as well, broadly labeled recreational kayaks. The label "kayak" is often misapplied to other small, human-powered vessels not descended from the kayak tradition, including multi-hull or outrigger boats and those which elevate above the water on hydrofoils.

Sea Kayaks are typically designed for travel by one or two paddlers on open water and in many cases trade maneuverability for seaworthiness, stability, and cargo capacity. Sea-kayak sub-types include open-deck "sit-on-top" kayaks, recreational kayaks, and collapsible "skin-on-frame" boats.

Whitewater kayaks are in some cases highly maneuverable boats, usually for a single paddler, and include such specialized boats as play boats slalom kayaks. White water racers combine a fast, unstable lower hull portion with a flared upper hull portion to combine flat water racing speed with extra stability in open water: they are not fitted with rudders and have similar maneuverability to flat water racers.

Surf Skis are specialized narrow and long boats for racing, surfing breaking waves and surf-zone rescues. Racing kayaks are designed for speed, and usually require substantial skill to achieve stability, due to extremely narrow hulls, though downriver racing kayaks are a hybrid style with whitewater boats.

Surf Kayaks are in many respects similar to whitewater boats, however often equipped with up to three fins. Specialty surf boats typically have flat bottoms, and hard edges, similar to surf boards. The design of a surf kayak promotes the use of an ocean surf wave (moving wave) as opposed to a river or feature wave (moving water). They are typically made from molded plastic, or fiberglass.

Modern kayaks are typically constructed from molded plastic, wood, fabrics over wooden or aluminum frames, fiberglass, Kevlar, or carbon fiber.

Traditional kayaks typically accommodate one, two or occasionally three paddlers who sit facing forward in one or more cockpits below the deck of the boat. If it Is designed with a flexible spraydeck cover for the boat, in particular for a kayak or a canoe. It is used in whitewater or inclement weather to prevent water from entering the boat while allowing one or more passengers to sit in the boat and propel the boat by paddling or rowing. The spraydeck is secured to a rim surrounding the cockpit with a line or elastic string. The line or string runs in a hollow seam along the edge of the spraydeck, and is tied around the rim or stretched over it. It is important that the fastening be as tight as possible to prevent water infiltration and yet capable of quickly being released if the boat should capsize, so that passengers can get out from the capsized boat


Skateboarding:

·Half-pipe - a U-shaped ramp of any size, usually with a flat section in the middle

·  Vertical skating - skating on ramps and other vertical structures specifically designed for skating.

·Vertical ramp - a half-pipe, usually at least 8 feet tall, with steep sides that are perfectly vertical near the top 

Ollie

The Ollie (named for is a technique of jumping on a skateboard in a way that pops the board off the street by kicking the tail section, or the nose section in the case of a nollie). This action lifts the opposite end of the board, at which point the front foot (in the case of an ollie) will slide forward causing the rear end to level out. Once this is achieved the rider lands all four wheels on the ground and rolls away with their knees bent.

Nollie

Nollie is a specific variation of the ollie where the skateboarder rolls forward in normal stance and pops the board off by kicking the nose section of the skateboard with his front foot. Nollie cannot be made in fakie or switch stance because then it becomes either a switch ollie or a fakie ollie.

Switch ollie

The same principle as an ollie, but it is performed switch stance.

Fakie ollie

An ollie performed while rolling backwards.

Some Flips:

The Heel flip is the same idea as a Kick flip but the board flips in the opposite direction. They look similar to the untrained eye, but the technique for doing a Heel flip is different, with the skateboarders heel kicking off the board to produce the flip.

 

Double Kick flip, is where the board flips twice before being caught.

 

Triple Kickflip, is where the board flips three times before being caught.

 

Quadflip, is where the board flips four times before being caught.

 

Varial Flip A combination of a backside pop shove-it and a kickflip.

 

360flip: (Aka 360 Kickflip, Backside 360 Flip, 360 Flip, Tré Flip or 3-Flip.) A combination of a Kickflip and a Backside 360 Pop Shove-it.

 

The 720 Kickflip is a combination of a kickflip and a 720 Pop Shove-it.

 

Frontside ollie is a short term for a Frontside 180 Ollie also dubbed as F/S 180. Turning in the direction of the rider's heels, the rider and the board spin 180 degrees in the same direction and at the same time during an Ollie

 

Backside ollie is a short term for a backside 180 Ollie also dubbed as B/S 180. Turning in the direction of the rider's toes, the rider and the board spin 180 degrees in the same direction and at the same time during an ollie.

 

The Kickflip Indy, is a variation on the Indy Air where the rider flips the board and catches it with his hand rather than the feet. It was first done on a vertical ramp but now is very commonly seen done on launch ramps or other surfaces which can generate sufficient air time.

 

Kickflip sex-change or body varial is where the board spins a kickflip and the skater does a full 180 degree spin,lands on the board in switch stance.

 

Hardflip, combines a frontside pop shove-it with a kickflip. Due to the difficulty of this trick, a similar looking variation has been popularised which is similar to the pop shove-it, in which the board rotates as it would with a pop shove-it only at a higher angle, so the board rotates 180 degrees vertically rather than horizontally, like a pirouette.

 

Mother Flip, where the board spins a 360 kickflip while the body rotates 360 degrees in the opposite direction.

 

Big Flip, the skaters body does a 180 while their board does a 360 flip.

 

Late Kickflip (lateflip) is where the tail is popped and the front foot kicks.

 

Late back-foot kickflip, the same a late kickflip, but is kickdown by the backfoot.

 

Varial Kickflip, where the board spins 180 and does a kickflip at the same time.


Skiing:

Types of Snow

·         Corn Snow - Typically seen during spring conditions, corn snow results from cycles of nightly freezing and daily thawing. This snow is wet and granular, and as it melts more in the day it may become sloppy and heavy.

·         Crud - Basically, crud is powder that has been skied on. Its snow that is uneven, packed down in some places, and piled up in others.

·         Crust - Crust is soft snow that has a layer of harden, frozen crust (hence the name) on the top. Crust can be from a number of things. Freezing rain, direct sunlight, or the melting and refreezing of the top layer of powder can result in crust.

·         Powder -Powder is freshly fallen snow that is very light. Formed by tiny snowflakes, it is extremely soft. Many skiers love powder. Powder skiing is the greatest!

·         Packed Powder - Packed powder is snow that is compressed and flattened either by skier and snowboarder traffic or by grooming equipment.

·         Slush - Slush is snow that is starting to melt, and it's very heavy and very wet, and not really great to ski on, unfortunately this is what you will usually ski on in the spring, when the thaw begins.

·         Granular Loose Snow - Loose Granular

·         Granular Wet Snow - Wet Granular is very wet snow, often found in spring conditions. Use this snow for your snowball fights..

·         Granular Frozen Snow - Frozen granular is frozen snow with a consistency like sugar.

Alpine: Downhill Ski Racing

Slalom skiing is  a course constructed by laying out a series of gates ("RapidGate(tm)") .Gates are formed by alternating pairs of red and blue poles. The skier must pass between the two poles forming the gate. (Strictly speaking, the tips of both skis and the skier's feet must pass between the poles.) A course has 55 to 75 gates for men and 40 to 60 gates for women.  Also the gates are spaced much closer together than in Giant Slalom

Giant Slalom  has gates spaced at a greater distance to each other than in slalom but not as great as in super G. The number of gates in this event ranges from 56 to 70 for men and from 46 to 58 for women. Giant slalom skis are longer than slalom skis, but not as long as super G and downhill skis.

Super G incorporates aspects of both downhill and giant slalom racing. Not only is this extreme, the participant is not permitted to train the course at full speed before the race. As in giant slalom and slalom, they are allowed only a one hour visual inspection of the course on the morning of the race. It involves skiing between widely spaced gates as in Giant Slalom, but with fewer turns over a longer course and with higher speeds approaching those achieved in Downhill. The minimum number of gates is 35 for men and 30 for women. Super G skiers will often assume the "tuck" position as in Downhill, but will continue turning constantly as in Giant Slalom, rarely encountering the periodic straight "gliding" sections of a Downhill course

Downhill racers experience skiing at high speeds (80 mph or more)  over ice, through difficult turns, extreme steeps, flats, and huge airs (jumps)  is one that achieves great speed as well as the gates are further apart. After grooming, the piste (the course) is sprinkled with water or salt to increase an icy surface and subsequent downhill course speed. Unlike slalom and giant slalom, where racers have two combined times, in the downhill, the race is a single "run." The Skis are 30% longer than those used in slalom, to provide added stability at high speed and often have rounded, low-profile tips rather than pointed tips. Ski poles are bent so as to curve around the body as the racer stays in a "tuck position" and may have aerodynamic, cone-shaped baskets.

Cross Country Skiing

 

Telemark Skiing: (also called “free heel skiing” by some)

The skis used for telemarking have a binding that only connects the boot to the ski at the toes, just as in cross-country skiing. Telemark turns are led with the heel flat on the outside ski (the downhill ski at the end of the turn), while the inside (uphill) ski is pulled beneath the skier's body with a flexed knee and raised heel. The skis are staggered but not quite parallel, and 50% to 60% of the body weight is distributed on the outside ski, depending on snow conditions.

*Nordic Skiing is unique in that it does not require any special grooming or ski area; you can enjoy your skiing on a mountain trail, the street in your neighborhood, or any area with adequate snow, and usually requiring less of that.

FYI: Cross (Nordic)Country Skiing defined by the type of ski race, that is one third up, one third down, and one third flat.

 

Telemark Competition Events:

·Telemark giant slalom

Similar to giant slalom, but including a jump marked for style and distance.

·Telemark Classic

Classic involves a super-g section, a giant slalom section, a jump (with time penalties of up to 7 seconds for short jumps as well as error in the landing), a 360° turn, and an uphill sprint.

·Telemark Sprint Classic

The same as Giant Slalom but with a 360° turn and a short cross-country part where the racers sprint for about 200 m using the free style or skate cross-country skiing technique.

·Mountain Telemark

Telemark competitions in unprepared snow. Gates and reipelykkje (360°). Telemark equipment. Backpack (5 kg senior, 3 kg junior), helmet. Free style.

·U.S. Extreme Freeskiing Telemark Championships

Sun Valley Tele Series

The Sun Valley Tele Series is the longest running telemark series in the USA. It hosts numerous events throughout each ski season.

Freestyle/*Freeskiing: (acrobatics)

There are two varieties of aerial skiing competitions: upright and inverted. In upright aerials, movements in which a skier's feet come higher than his or her head are illegal. This is the most common type of aerials competition for junior competitors. In inverted aerials, skiers execute elaborate flips and somersaults. The ski designs feature a twin tip system. The twin tip works much like a snowboard in allowing the user to ski normally or ski backwards (switch) on jumps and rails.

There are two main branches of freestyle skiing: one encompassing the more traditional events of moguls and aerials, and a newer branch often called new school, comprising events such as halfpipe, big air, slopestyle, and big mountain or free-skiing

*Freeskiing is much more open ended than Aerials or Moguls and is more accessible to the general public. The sport is also more appealing to younger generations and is similar in nature to snowboarding and skateboarding. A huge growth in the popularity of freeskiing has also led to an increase of traditional freestyle disciplines, especially in moguls.

 Snow Boarding:    

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Necessary Snowboard Equipment –

·Helmet

·Snowboard Bag

·Snowboard Bindings

·Snowboard Boots

·Snowboard Clothing

·Snowboard Goggles

·Snowboard Leash

· Padding or "armor" is recommended on other body parts such as hips, knees, spine, and shoulders.

  Wrist Guards (Snowboarders often land on their hands and knees, resulting in wrist breakage)

Styles:

Freeride

This style is the most common and easily accessible style of snowboarding. It involves riding down any terrain available. Freeriding may include aerial tricks and jib (any type of fixture which can be ridden with the board/skis that is not snow) tricks borrowed from freestyle, or deep carve turns more common in alpine snowboarding, utilizing whatever natural terrain the rider may encounter. The equipment is usually a stiff soft shell boot with a directional twin snowboard.

Dry Slope

These are man-made slopes which provide an alternative terrain for snowboarders wanting to snowboard during the summer or for those who live too far away from a snowy mountain. They are constructed with a solid cross-hatched metal base which hold plastic bristles for riding on.

Freestyle

The rider uses manmade terrain features such as rails, jumps, boxes, and innumerable other innovative features to perform tricks on. The term "box" refers to an objects with a slick top, usually of fiberglass, that the rider can slide on with the base of their board. Like all freestyle features, boxes come in a variety of shapes, sizes, thereby increasing skill levels. The intent of freestyle is to use these terrain features to perform a number of aerial or jib tricks. The term "jib" refers to the rider doing a slide or press on an object not made of snow.

The equipment used in freestyle is usually a soft boot with a twin tipped board for better balance while riding regular or switch, though freeride equipment is often used successfully. The most common binding stance used in freestyle is called "duck foot", in which the trailing foot has a negative degree of arc setup while the leading foot is in the positive range i.e. -9°/+12°. Freestyle riders who specialize in jibbing often use boards that are shorter than usual, with softer flex and filed down edges. Shorter length enables the board to be rotated faster, and a softer flex requires less energy for a rider to press a feature. Pressing refers to a type of jib where the rider leans heavily toward the nose or tail of their board- causing the opposite end of their board to lift off of the feature they are sliding on.

Freestyle also includes halfpipe tricks. A halfpipe (or "pipe") is a trench-like half-tube made of snow. Tricks performed may be rotations such as a 360° (a full turn) in the air, or an off-axis spin.

Freecarve

Similar to skiing, this race and slalom focused style is still practiced, though infrequently. Sometimes called alpine snowboarding, or the 'euro-carve', freecarving takes place on hard packed snow or groomed runs and focuses on the ultimate carving turn, much like traditional skiing. Little or no jumping takes place in this discipline. Freecarve equipment is a ski-like hardshell boot and plate binding system with a true directional snowboard that is usually very stiff and narrow to facilitate fast and responsive turns. Shaped

Ski Jumping: “*Nordic”

The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long.

World cup skiing championships are held on *three types of hill.

Normal hill competitions

The calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 meters (260–330 ft). Distances of up to and over 110 meters (360 ft) can be reached.

                        Large hill competitions

The calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 meters (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 meters (480 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.

                       Ski-flying competitions

                       The calculation line is found at 185 meters (610 ft).

Ski flying is an extreme version of ski jumping. The events take place in big hills with a K-spot of at least 185 meters (610 ft).

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance and style. And they must touch the ground in the telemark landing style, or they will lose points.

*Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point) which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 meters (300 ft) and 120 meters (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers not landing on the K Line receive or lose 1.8 points for every meter (3 ft) they miss the mark by, depending on if they surpass it or fall short, respectively.

  *Nordic style skis, meaning that the heels of boot and binding are detached from the ski. The skis are much longer and wider than other types of skis and jumping is usually done without ski-   poles.


Snowmobiling: (aka Sleds)

Snowmobiling can be a fun and exciting recreation for people of all ages.

Types of snowmobile: 

Snowmobiling provides great opportunities for family recreation during the winter months. Many people will be operating a snowmobile for the first time and along with that, new skills must be learned and new attitudes developed. Therefore, it is important that the new rider be aware and participates in safety training; this will expose new users to basic snowmobile safety, responsibilities, ethics, laws and mechanical functions.

Clothing:


Snowmobile clothing, helmets and accessories should be purchased from reputable snowmobile dealers. Recommended: bibs (pants that extend up your chest and back), jackets, gloves, boots and helmet. Snowmobile clothing comes in all shapes and sizes. Snowmobile dealers offer a full line of clothing that is specifically designed and manufactured to keep you warm and withstand winter.

Safety Tips:

Essentials include Protective gear, clothing and equipment requirements

Never consume alcohol or drugs before or during snowmobile operation. Drinking alcohol before or during snowmobiling can impair judgment and slow reaction time. Snowmobilers who have been drinking often drive too fast. Alcohol also causes body temperature to drop at an accelerated rate, which increases the likelihood of hypothermia. Alcohol has been shown to be a contributing factor in most fatal snowmobile accidents.

 

Slow down. Speed is a contributing factor in nearly all fatal snowmobiling accidents. Drivers should proceed at a pace that will allow ample reaction time for any situation. Drive at moderate speeds, and drive defensively, especially after sunset.

 

Carry a first-aid kit, flashlight, knife, compass, map, and waterproof matches.

 

Avoid traveling across bodies of water when uncertain of ice thickness or water currents. Rapidly changing weather and moving water in streams and lake inlets also affect the thickness and strength of ice on lakes and ponds. Snow cover can act as a blanket and prevents thick strong ice from forming.

 

Dress appropriately. Always wear a helmet with goggles or a face shield to prevent injuries from twigs and flying debris. Wear layers of water-repellent clothing and make sure you have no loose ends that might catch in the machine or tangle in equipment.

 

Stay on marked trails or, where allowed, on the right shoulder of the road. Be alert for fences, tree stumps and stretched wire that may be concealed by snow.

 

Never travel alone. Most snowmobile accidents result in personal injury. The most dangerous situations occur when a person is injured and alone. If you must travel alone, tell someone your destination, planned route, and when you will return.

Bombardier's Semi-Direct Injection (SDI) two-stroke motors emit 60 percent less pollutants than previous 2-stroke machines with carburetors. Polaris has developed a fuel-injection technology called "Cleanfire Injection" on their 2 strokes. Bombardier (Joseph-Armand Bombardier - Canada) Industries is the leader in the snowmobile industry.

Races-Championships:

Major Manufactures:

Alpin","sans-serif"'>…SLOW DOWN...

...RIDE SOBER...

&

Enjoy Snowmobiling the rest of your Life

Traveling on ice

The following guidelines can help you make wise choices and in some cases, Save your life.

Check for known thin ice areas with a locals that are familiar with the lake.
Test the thickness yourself using an ice chisel, ice auger or even a cordless 1/4 inch drill with a long bit.

Stay away from alcoholic beverages.
Even "just a couple of beers" are enough to cause a careless error in judgment that could cost you your life. And contrary to common belief, alcohol actually makes you colder rather than warming you up.

Don't "overdrive" your snowmobile's headlight.
At even 30 miles per hour, it can take a much longer distance to stop on ice than your headlight shines. Many fatal snowmobile through-the-ice accidents occur because the machine was traveling too fast for the operator to stop when the headlamp illuminated the hole in the ice.

Wear a life vest under your winter gear.
Or wear one of the new flotation snowmobile suits. And it's a good idea to carry a pair of ice picks that may be homemade or purchased from most well stocked sporting goods stores that cater to winter anglers. It's amazing how difficult it can be to pull yourself back onto the surface of unbroken but wet and slippery ice while wearing a snowmobile suit weighted down with 60 lbs of water. The ice picks really help pulling yourself back onto solid ice.

For New, Clear Ice Only

 

·         Snowmobile Safety Tips:

·         * Do not travel alone
* Let someone know where you are going and when you will return.
* Check with local officials for avalanche warnings.
* Be prepared for the unexpected. 
* Wear adequate winter clothing, protective goggles and sunscreen.
* Watch the weather, winter storms can come in very fast.

 

* The IWA (International Watercross Association) operates mainly in the midwest, while the EWA (Eastern Watercross Association) operates in the Northeastern States.


Soccer:

MLS: Major League Soccer:

Is the top-flight professional soccer (football) league based in the United States and sanctioned by U.S. Soccer. The league is comprised of 15 teams, 14 in the U.S. and one in Canada. MLS represents the top tier of the American and Canadian soccer pyramids. MLS was founded in 1993 as part of the bid for the United States to host the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The First season took place in 1996 beginning with 10 teams. Seasons run from late March or early April to November, with teams playing

The teams are divided between the Eastern and Western Conferences. Each club is allowed 24 players on their full roster.

 Western:

  • Chivas USA
  • Colorado Rapids
  • FC Dallas
  • Houston Dynamo
  • Los Angeles Galaxy
  • Real Salt Lake
  • San Jose Earthquakes
  • Seattle Sounders FC

Future Teams: Portland Timbers, Philadelphia & Vancouver (BC)

Eastern:

  • Chicago Fire
  • Columbus Crew
  • D.C. United
  • Kansas City Wizards
  • New England Revolution
  • New York Red Bulls
  • Toronto FC

 

 


Swimming:

Pediatricians and pediatric medical specialists that sets guidelines for pediatric health in the United States, states that children are not developmentally ready for formal swimming lessons until after their fourth birthday

Do not let children play unattended in the water!

Swimming Safety Tips

  1. Never swim alone. This is regardless of how good a swimmer you are.
  2. 2. Don't swim right after eating a large meal. For a large meal is takes about two hours before you are ready to start swimming.
  3. Don't chew gum or eat while swimming.
  4. Don't consume alcohol prior to swimming.
  5. Don't swim in lightening.
  6. Don't dive into water if you don't know how deep it is. Never dive into open water regardless of how deep it is.
  7. Don't dive into water if there might be someone below you.
  8. When lap swimming watch for people entering your lane.
  9. If there are other people in the lane you are swimming in, don't swim in the center of the lane.
  10. When going for an open water swim find out the weather conditions and don't go swimming if they are unsuitable.
  11.  Make sure that the place you plan to open water swim in is suitable for swimming. Think to look for include chemicals being dumpted into the water, boats being allowed in the water, and jet skis being allowed in the water (please note: this is not a conclusive list of all things to look for).
  12. Look for landmarks for your open water swim.
  13. Watch out for rocky areas near the shore.
  14. Look for and obey warning flags, they are there for a reason!
  15. Learn more than one stroke. Good alternatives for open water swimming include side stroke, breast stroke, and for some people backstroke.
  16. If swimming long distances are open water (ocean water in particular) swim parallel to shore.
  17. Avoid swimming near piers and other fixed objects in ocean water. This is where rip current are often found.
  18. If you are not a strong swimmer, don't start in the middle of the pack at your first races. Unlike lap swimming there is a lot of contact at the beginning of an open water swim.
  19. Don't do a swim which you are unprepared for. This includes races, even if they have a lot of rescue boats.
  20. Don't encourage those at a lower swimming level than yourself to try to keep up with you.
  21. If you are abnormally cold, hot or tired stop.
  22. Know what to do in an emergency.
  23. Have an emergency plan.
  24. Don't depend on floatation devices alone for safety.
  25. Know where a phone is in case of an emergency.

 

Information on this page and site is for information purposes. It should not be mistaken for expert information or formal training. The author of this website is NOT responsible for use or misuse of this information.

 

FYI: d.p.s (distance per stroke)

 

Swimming Levels:

 

Novice to Advanced

 

In North America most swimming schools use the swimming levels "Learn to Swim" as defined by the American Red Cross.

 

The student needs to get comfortable with water: this includes kicking, bobbing, underwater exploration, front and back floating and gliding with face in the water, open eyes under water.

The student needs to swim 15 feet on front and back, submerge entire head, submerge and retrieve an object,

The student needs to swim 15 yards on front, back and crawl, also jump into deep water from side.

Includes front and back crawl of 25 yards, butterfly 1and breaststroke of 15 yards, allowing for turns while swimming.

All strokes should be shown at 25 yards, allow for flip turn, includes swimming underwater for 15 yards.

The swimming test includes swimming continuously of 500 yards, including back and front crawl at 100 yards, plus 50 yards for each of butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and sidestroke. On top of this common swimming proficiency there are four swimming test variants for the Level 6 certificate: (A) Diving Basics - show a jump from the diving board; (B) Fitness Swimmer - demonstrate the use of training gear; (C) Lifeguard Readiness - submerge to deep water (minimum 7 feet); (D) Personal Water Safety - life jacket and boating rules.

 

4 Types of Swimming Strokes

 

 

-Backstroke: You perform the movement with your back facing the water, moving your arms and legs as you would if you were performing the freestyle

 

-Breaststroke: this stroke has a more defined pattern of movement. Your shoulders should be kept in line with the water, and your arm and leg movements should be coordinated to push together, performing the same actions. Your arms move out from your chest and around the sides of your body, and then back up along the center again to return to the start position

 

-Butterfly: your arms move together from behind you, up and out of the water, ending above your head before once again entering the water, while your legs do a dolphin kick. (the hardest strokes to learn in swimming)

 

-Freestyle: also known as the front crawl or Australian crawl, it is basically what the name implies, and usually the first stroke learned. The swimmer is on their stomach in the water and flutter kicks (alternate kicking of the feet) while alternately wind-milling their arms. This arm motion propels the swimmer forward by scooping out the water in a digging motion. Beginner swimmers tend to breathe with every stroke, but more efficient and skilled swimmers breathe every other stroke. There are no specific limitations on how your arms and legs must move; you just have to be sure to keep one body part above the water at all times (except for the first 15 meters at the beginning and after each turn).

 

-Dog paddle: That is a basic learning stroke. Little kids usually learn this stroke as a rudimentary way to move through the water. Then they graduate to a more refined stroke, such as freestyle. As the strokes are learned, the technique of a swimmer tends to change. The swimming stroke is perfected to a point where the swimmer is using both arms and legs efficiently to move through the water. Speed comes from the optimum positioning of the body, strengthening of the legs for kicking, and breathing properly

 

Rip Tides:

A rip tide, or undertow, is a small but strong channel of water moving out to sea. Rip tides are characterized by darker, deeper and foamier water, sometimes with floating debris. The area where

 

the rip is usually calm with a rippled surface and smaller waves. In the process, water often travels over sand bars.

Water always takes the path of least resistance, and will find its way through any opening in the sand bar. When this happens, the extraordinarily large amount water passing through the gap in the sand bar causes a riptide.

 

If you get caught in a rip tide: 

 

- Should you find yourself in a rip tide, and feel yourself being pulled out to sea, Stay calm, and do not swim directly against it. Try to relax and just stay afloat. The water may pull you a hundred yards or so out into the ocean. Don't fight it, and don't panic.

 

- If you are a strong swimmer, swim parallel to shore until you are past the current, and then swim toward the shore.

 

- If you are a weak swimmer, signal to the lifeguard and either float with the current or continue to tread water until help arrives.

 

- When you feel the force begin to subside, swim either to your right or to your left, as long as it is parallel to the shore. Rip tides are usually 30 to 100 feet wide.

 

- If you can't swim back, then tread water, try to wave a hand and call for help, but definitely try to stay calm.

 


Tennis:

Tennis is played on a rectangular, flat surface, usually grass, clay, or a hard court concrete and/or asphalt. The court is 78 feet (23.77 m) long, and its width is 27 feet (8.23 m) for singles matches and 36 ft (10.97 m) for doubles matches

Grand Slam:

     -Australian Open / Acrylic Hard Court

Is the first of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments held each year. The tournament is held each January at Melbourne Park. The two main courts used in the tournament are Rod Laver Arena and Hisense Arena and feature retractable roofs, which can be shut in case of rain or extreme heat.

     -French Open / Clay Court

The French Open (French: Les Internationaux de France de Roland Garros or Tournoi de Roland-Garros) is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between mid-May and early June in Paris, France, at the Stade Roland Garros. It is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar and the premier clay court tennis tournament in the world.

     -Wimbledon / Grass Court

Is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is widely considered the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in the London suburb of Wimbledon since 1877. The Centre Court now has a retractable roof.

     - U.S. Open / Acrylic Hard Court

The tournament is chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tennis tournament each year. It is held annually in August and September over a two-week period (the weeks before and after Labor Day weekend). The main tournament consists of five different event championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles. Since 1978, the tournament is presently played at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in Queens, New York City.

The US Open differs from the other three Grand Slam tournaments in that there are final-set tie-breaks. In the other three majors, the fifth set for the men and the third set for the women continue until someone wins by two games.

U.S. Tennis Association

U.S. National Men’s Singles

U.S. Women’s National Singles

ATP World Tour Masters 1000 is a series of nine tennis tournaments that are part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) tour, held annually throughout the year in Europe and North America. The tournaments are mandatory for the top male players on the professional circuit. The series constitutes the most prestigious tournaments in men's tennis after the four Grand Slam events. Currently the Masters Series events are decided in best of three set matches. At the end of the tennis year, the top eight players in the world compete for the Masters Cup.

Hopman Cup:

Unlike other major international team tennis tournaments like the Davis Cup and the Fed Cup, which is strictly for men or women only, the Hopman Cup is a mixed competition where male and female players team up together on combined teams.

Davis Cup:

The Davis Cup is the international team event in men's tennis. The largest annual team competition in sport, the Davis Cup is run by the International Tennis Federation and is contested between teams of players from the competing countries in a knock-out format.

Fed Cup:

The Fed Cup is the most important tennis tournament for female national teams, very similar to the men's Davis Cup. Both events are sanctioned by the International Tennis Federation.

World Team Cup:

Is the international team championship of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP). It is considered to be second most prestigious men's team competition in tennis after the Davis Cup.

Every year, the eight nations whose top two male players have achieved the highest combined placings in the men's world rankings at the end of the previous year are invited to compete for the cup.


Track and Field:  

Always warm up!

QT. The high jump method of jumping head first and landing on the back is called the Fosbury Flop. It was popularized and perfected by American athlete Dick Fosbury, whose gold medal in the 1968 Summer Olympics brought it to the world's attention

 

There are two seasons for track and field. There is an indoor season, run during the winter and an outdoor season, run during the spring. Most indoor tracks are 200 meters and consist of four to 8 lanes. There are also some 150 meters indoor tracks, and others as small as 120 meters have been used. Some "oversize tracks" (larger than 200 meters) are popular for American collegiate athletics despite the fact that they are not considered valid for setting indoor records. Often an indoor track will have banked turns to compensate for the tight radius of the turns. The banking can help prevent injuries to the athlete, while also promoting higher speeds

 

Cross Country (Races are started en masse)

 

Each cross-country running course is different in composition. Distances are generally standardized; however there will be little in common between any two courses other than their length. As such, accurate comparisons cannot be made between performances on different courses or even on the same course on different years as the weather and underfoot conditions can be significantly different. For this reason, records of the fastest times in international competition are not kept.

 

Amateur Athletic Union (AAU)

 

The AAU was founded in 1888 to establish standards and uniformity in amateur sport. During its early years the AAU served as a leader in international sport representing the United States in the international sports federations.

 

The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. Founded in 1912

 

The National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) is the body that writes the rules of competition for most high school sports and activities in the United States. Most high schools, whether public or private, belong to their state's high school association; in turn, each state association belongs to the NFHS.

 

The Road Runners Club of America (RRCA) is a trade association of local running clubs and other running-related organization (coaches, officials, race sponsors)

 

USA Track & Field (USATF) is the national governing body for the sport of track and field in the United States. USA Track & Field is involved in many aspects of the sport at the local, national, and international level - coaching education, sports science and athlete development, youth programs, masters (age 40+) competition, the National Track & Field Hall of Fame.

 

 

     Field Jumping

·High Jump

·Pole Vault

·Long Jump

·Triple Jump

 

        Multiple Events

·Pentathlon-Outdoor/Indoor

·Heptathlon

·Decathlon

 

        Throwing

·Discus

· Javelin

·Shot Put

 

Track

·Sprint

·Middle Distance

·Long Distance

·Hurdles

·Relay

·Road Races

·Race-walking

 

 

 

 

Running & Jogging

Running is very good for your health. It provides a great cardiovascular workout and strengthens and tones muscles. Regular jogging gives better overall physical condition as well as some other health benefits, including mental benefits such as relaxation and reduction of anxiety. Regular running and jogging is a good way to improve health and fitness. It’s an excellent way to burn calories and get in shape. In fact it is one of the most efficient aerobic exercises in terms of calories burnt per hour. However running is also the exercise that can put the most strain on your body. Your leg joints can suffer, and of course your heart is pumping a lot faster and working harder while you are running

 

   Marathons

 

·Baltimore Marathon

·Boston Marathon

·Midnight Sun Marathon

·New York City Marathon

·St. George Marathon

·Chickamauga Battlefield Marathon

·Dallas White Rock Marathon

·Big Sur International Marathon

·Chicago Marathon

·Marine Corps Marathon

·San Francisco Marathon

·Twin Cities Marathon

·Kilauea Volcano Marathon

·Kiawah Island Marathon

·Honolulu Marathon

·Ocean State Marathon

·Shiprock Marathon

·Detroit Free Press International Marathon

·Portland Marathon

·Mayor's Midnight Sun Marathon

·Hoosier Marathon

·Sun Trust Richmond Marathon

·Steamboat Marathon

·Crater Lake Rim Marathon

·Grandfather Mountain Marathon

·Grandma's Marathon

·Charlotte Observer Marathon

·Saskatchewan Marathon

 

Walking & Power Walking

 

Walking is rapidly catching on as the preferred cardiovascular training method of many. It tones the entire body and increases cardiac endurance and bone strength and does so with less impact on the joints, as one gets from running. In a large study of consistent runners and walkers, the walkers were less likely to sustain injuries. Walking carries far fewer painful health risks, such as shin splints, back pain, and knee injuries.

 

It is very important to warm up (stretch) before and thoroughly stretch and cool down after, walking or running.

 

Burning some Calories:

 


Volleyball:  (originally called “Mintonette”)

William G Morgan, a YMCA physical education director invented the game. The first official game took place in Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1895. Six team members on each side.

The game is played on a volleyball court 18 meters (59 feet) long and 9 meters (29.5 feet) wide, divided into two 9 m × 9 m halves by a one-meter (40-inch) wide net placed so that the top of the net is 2.43 meters (7 feet 11 5/8 inches) above the center of the court for men's competition, and 2.24 meters (7 feet 4 1/8 inches) for women's competition (these heights are varied for veterans and junior competitions).

FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical, made of leather or synthetic leather, have a circumference of 65–67 cm, a weight of 260–280 g and an inside pressure of 0.30–0.325 kg/cm2.

The ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) the ball with any part of the body.

The Volleyball World Championship represents men's and women's indoor volleyball competition. It is the oldest and most important of all the international events.

The World Cup was created in 1965 with the purpose of partially filling the gap between the two most important volleyball tournaments, the Olympic Games and the World Championship, which take place in alternating 4-year cycles. The establishment of a third international competition would leave only one in every four years with no major events. The World Cup was to be held in the year following the Olympic Games. The first two tournaments were for men's volleyball only; in 1973, a women's tournament was also introduced. Originally, each tournament had a different host, but in 1977 the competition was transferred to Japan on a permanent basis.

The World League was created in 1990 as part of the intensive marketing program that would become a distinctive mark of the FIVB's activities near the end of the century. The idea was to promote the sport of volleyball by establishing an annual competition that would appeal to audiences all over the world.

At that point, international competitions involving top volleyball teams (e.g., the Olympic Games, the World Championship) took place only in 4-year cycles, and were usually confined to a host city or nation. By contrast, the World League was designed to be played on a one-year basis, with a system of rotating cities that allowed every team to host a number of matches in the preliminary round. Further restrictions on participation, such as mandatory local broadcasting, ensured massive TV & media coverage.

The FIVB's strategy eventually proved visionary: at the turn of the century, the World League was fully consolidated as a major international volleyball event. Generous rewards in cash - from 1990 to 2004, the total sum spent on prize money jumped from $1 to $13 million. Following the success of the World League, the FIVB launched a sister project in 1993 for women's volleyball, the Grand Prix. It was very effective in East Asia, where this type of event has become tremendously popular, but its results in a worldwide scale still remain timid

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